• Julia Morgan
  • Albert C. Martin
  • William J. Gage
  • Joseph Cather Newsom
  • Carol H. Brown
  • Thomas B. Barber
  • J. Earl Trudeau
  • Myron Hunt
  • ELmer Gray
  • Frank Dale Hudson
  • William A.O. Mansell
  • Albert Walker
  • Perry Eisen
  • Leonard Schultze
  • S. Fullerton Weaver
  • Charles Sumner Greene
  • Henry Mather Greene
  • L.A. Smith
  • Stiles O. Clements
  • Henry Oliver
  • Leland A. Bryant
  • John Parkinson
  • Donald Parkinson
  • Robert Vincent Derrah
  • Cedric Gibbons
  • Douglas Honnold
  • Richard Neutra
  • Rudolph Schindler
  • Frank Lloyd Wright
  • Charles Eames
  • Paul Williams
  • John Lautner
  • Pereira & Luckman
  • Michael Graves
  • Jeffrey Daniels

  • Adobe style
    Avila Adobe.
    1818.  Los Angeles.
    Avila Adobe, interior.
    Mission San Diego de Alcala.
    1769.  San Diego.
    Mission San Diego de Alcala, fountain.
    Mission Revival
    Julia Morgan, Examiner Building.
    1914.  Los Angeles.
    Spanish Baroque Revival
    Albert C. Martin, St. Vincent de Paul Roman Catholic Church.
    1923-25.  Los Angeles.
    William J. Gage, Beverly Hills City Hall.
    1932.  Beverly Hills.
    Greek Revival
    Banning Museum.
    1864.  Wilmington.
    Banning Museum, parlor.
    Joseph Cather Newsom, Sessions Residence.
    1888.  Echo Park.
    Hale House.
    1888.  Formerly Los Angeles, now in Heritage Square, Pasadena.
    Hale House, interiors.
    Richardsonian Romanesque
    Carrol H. Brown, Stimson House.
    1891.  Los Angeles.
    Stimson House, interior.
    Gothic Revival
    Thomas B. Barber, Hollywood United Methodist Church.
           1929.  Hollywood.
    J. Earl Trudeau, Saint Augustine Catholic Church.
           1956-57.  Culver City.
    Beaux Arts
    Myron Hunt and Elmer Grey, Huntington Library.
    1910.  San Marino.
    Huntington Mansion, interiors.
    Frank Dale Hudson and William A.O. Mansell, Guasti Mansion.
    (Peace Awareness Labyrinth and Gardens)
    1910-14.  Los Angeles.
    Guasti Mansion, interior.
    Albert Walker and Perry Eisen, Regent Beverly Wilshire Hotel.
    1928.  Beverly Hills.
    Leonard Schultze and S. Fullerton Weaver, Biltmore Hotel (now Millennium Biltmore),
           1923.  Los Angeles.
    Millennium Biltmore, lobby.
    Arts and Crafts
    Charles and Henry Greene, Gamble House.
    1908.  Pasadena.
    Gamble House, front door.
    Gamble House, inglenook.
           Early 20th century.  West Hollywood.
    English Tudor Revival
    L.A. Smith, West Adams Gardens.
    1920.  Los Angeles.
    French Normandy
    c. 1920s.  Long Beach.
    Spanish Colonial Revival
    Stiles O. Clements, Adamson House.
    1929.  Malibu.
    Adamson House, hallway
    Adamson House, living room.
    Adamson House, fountain.
    Henry Oliver, Spadena House (Witch’s House)
    1921.  Beverly Hills.
    Spadena House, interiors.
    Meyer and Holler, Mann’s Chinese Theater.
    1927.  Hollywood.
    Art Deco
    Leland A. Bryant, Argyle Hotel (now Sunset Tower Hotel).
    1929.  West Hollywood.
    John Parkinson and Donald Parkinson, Bullock’s Wilshire Department Store
    (now Southwestern School of Law).
    1928.  Los Angeles.
    Bullock’s Wilshire, bronze gates.
    Bullock’s Wilshire, Perfume Hall.
    Robert Vincent Derrah, Coca-Cola Bottling Plant.
    1936.  Los Angeles.
    Cedric Gibbons and Douglas Honnold, Dolores del Rio House.
    1929.  Santa Monica.
    Dolores del Rio House, interiors.
    Richard Neutra, Lovell House.
    1929.  Los Angeles.
    Lovell House, staircase.
    Rudolph Schindler, Schindler Studio.
     1921.  West Hollywood.
    Schindler Studio, interiors.
    Frank Lloyd Wright
    Frank Lloyd Wright, Barnsdall House (Hollyhock House)
    1921.  Los Angeles.
    Barnsdall House, interiors.
    Wright, Ennis House.
    1924.  Los Angeles.
    Ennis House, interiors.
    Mid-Century Modern
    Charles Eames, Eames Studio Complex.
    1947.  Pacific Palisades.
    Eames Studio Complex, living room.
    Eames Studio Complex, office interior.
    Paul Williams, Desi Arnaz and Lucille Ball Residence. 
    1950s.  Palm Springs.
    Desi Arnaz and Lucille Ball Residence, pool.
    Ranch-style house (Sunset Magazine cover).
    John Lautner, Sheats-Goldstein House.
    1963.  Los Angeles.
    Sheats-Goldstein House, living room.
    Sheats-Goldstein House, bedroom.
    Pereira & Luckman and Paul Williams, Los Angeles International Airport Theme Building.
    1960.  Los Angeles.
    Michael Graves Walt Disney Headquarters.
    1988-90.  Burbank.
    Jeffrey Daniels, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
           1990.  Los Angeles.
  • Iktinos (Mid 5th c., Greek)
  • Kallikrates (470BC-420 BC, Greek)
  • Henry Austin (1804-1891, American)
  • Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959, American)
  • Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928, Scottish)
  • Gerrit Thomas Rietveld (1888-1964, Dutch)
  • Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969, German)
  • Paul Frankl (1887-1958, Austrian/American)
  • Georgia O’Keeffe (1887-1986, American)
  • William Morris (1834-96, British)
  • Andy Warhol (1928-87, American)
  • Rudolph Schindler (1887-1970, Austrian)
  • Charles Sumner Greene (1868-1957, American)
  • Henry Mather Greene (1870-1954, American),
  • Cass Gilbert (1859-1934, American)
  • Le Corbusier (Charles-Édouard Jeanneret) (1887-1965, Swiss)
  • A.M. Cassandre (1901-1968, Ukrainian)
  • Thomas Hart Benton (1889-1975, American)
  • Philip Cortelyou Johnson (1906-2005, American)
  • Karl J. Jucker (1902-1997, Swiss)
  • Wilhelm Wagenfeld (1900-1990, German)
  • Dirk Van Erp (1860-1933, Dutch/American)
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519, Italian)
  • Arthur Dove (1880-1946, American)

  • Iktinos and Kallikrates, Temple of Athena Parthenos (Parthenon).
    447-438 B.C.  Acropolis, Athens.  Example of entasis.
    Illustration from Pelton’s Cheap Dwellings. 
    Henry Austin, Morse-Libby House (also known as Victoria Mansion).
    1860.  Portland, Maine.
    Morse-Libby House, entrance hall.
    Frank Lloyd Wright , Unity Temple, interior.
    1906.  Oak Park, Illinois.
    Unity Temple, interior
    Charles Rennie Mackintosh , Hill House, interior hall. 1904.  Helensburgh, Scotland.
    Hill House, bedroom
    Gerrit Thomas Rietveld , Schröder House. 
    1924.  Utrecht, Netherlands. (Sometimes referred to as the Schräder-Schröder House.)
    Schröder House, interior
    Ludwig Mies van der Rohe , Farnsworth House. 
    1946-50.  Plano, Illinois.
    Farnsworth House.
    Farnsworth House, interior.
    Farnsworth House, plan and model.
    Paul Frankl
    “Speed” lounge chair.

          1930s.  Leather.
    Wright, Furniture for Larkin Company
          Administration Building.  1904.  Buffalo.  (Demolished in 1950.)
    Mies van der Rohe, Barcelona  chair and stool,
          for the German Pavilion for the International Exhibition at Barcelona. 
    1929.  Barcelona.
    Rietveld, Red and Blue chair.
          1918.  Painted beechwood.  Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Nautilus shell.
    Greek Ionic capital.
    Wright, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, interior.
    1946-59.  New York City.
    Georgia O’Keeffe Shell No. 1.
    1928.  Oil on canvas.  National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.
    O’Keeffe, Red Canna.
    c. 1923.  Oil on canvas.  National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.
    Sumac leaves.
    Wright, Dana-Thomas House, interior.
    1902.  Springfield, Illinois.
    William Morris “Strawberry Thief” fabric.
    Andy Warhol (1928-87, American), Marilyn. 1967.  Silkscreen.  Smithsonian Museum of American Art, Washington DC
    Japanese tea house interior.
    Rudolph Schindler King’s Road House, interior.
    1921.  West Hollywood.
    Charles Sumner Greene Henry Mather Greene
    Gamble House, hallway.
    1908.  Pasadena.
    Cathedral of Notre Dame, interior.
    1163–1250.  Paris.
    Cass Gilbert Woolworth Building.
    1911-13.  New York.
    Le Corbusier (Charles-Édouard Jeanneret)Chapel of Notre-Dame-du-Haut. 
    1950-55.  Ronchamp, France.
    Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye, interior.
    1928-31.  Poissy-sur-Seine, France.
    A.M. Cassandre, poster for Nord Express.
    Thomas Hart Benton Score Another for the Subs.
    Carved wood panel.
    Wood door
    Geometric tile.
    Art Deco-style tile.
    Wright, Ennis House, detail of concrete textile block.
    1924.  Los Angeles.
    Mission San Xavier del Bac.
    1778-1797.  Tucson.
    Philip Johnson, Glass House. 
    1949.  New Canaan, Connecticut.
    Karl J. Jucker and Wilhelm Wagenfeld, table lamp (for the Bauhaus).
    1923-24.  Glass and metal.
    Dirk Van Erp lamp.
    c. 1910.  Hammered and patinated copper with mica.
    Leonardo da Vinci Proportions of Man.
    1492.  Pen and ink.  Gallerie dell’Accademia, Venice.
    Arthur Dove Fog Horns.
    1929.  Oil on canvas.  Colorado Springs Fine Art Center.
    Beverly Hills home
    Beverly Hills home
    Beverly Hills home
    Beverly Hills home
    Beverly Hills home
    Beverly Hills home
  • Iktinos (Mid 5th c., Greek)
  • Kallikrates (470BC-420 BC, Greek)
  • Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446, Italian)
  • Andrea di Pietro (Palladio) (1508-80, Italian)
  • Richard Boyle (Lord Burlington) (1694-1753, British)
  • William Kent (1674-1748, British)
  • Robert Adam (1728-92, Scottish)
  • Augustus Welby Northmore (A.W.N.) Pugin(1812-52, British)
  • and Sir Charles Barry (1795-1860, British)
  • William Morris (1834-96, British),
  • Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928, Scottish)
  • Antoni Plàcid Guillem Gaudí I Cornet, (1852-1926, Spanish
  • Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959, American)
  • Elsie de Wolfe (1865-1950, American)
  • Le Corbusier (Charles-Édouard Jeanneret) (1887-1965, Swiss)
  • Pierre Jeanneret (1896-1967, Swiss)
  • Eileen Gray (1878-1976, Irish)
  • Lilly Reich (1885-1947, German)
  • Jacques-Emile Ruhlmann (1879-1933, French)
  • Donald Deskey (1894-1989, American)

  • Iktinos, Temple of Hephaestus.
       c. 449 BC.  Athens
    Iktinos and Kallikrates, Temple of Athena Parthenos (Parthenon).
    447-438 B.C.  Acropolis, Athens
    Parthenon colonnade, showing entasis
    Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian columns
    Filippo Brunelleschi Florence Cathedral and dome construction.
          1420-1436.  Florence.
    Andrea di Pietro (Palladio) Villa Rotunda (Villa Capra).
    1566-69.  Vicenza, Italy.
    Villa Rotunda plan and dome frescoes.
    Richard Boyle (Lord Burlington) Chiswick House.
          1725-29.  Chiswick, England.
    William Kent Chiswick House, Gallery
    Robert AdamOsterley Park House, Etruscan Room.
    1761.  Middlesex, England.
    Adam, ceiling in Chandos House.
    1771.  London.
    Augustus Welby Northmore (A.W.N.) Puginand Sir Charles Barry (1795-
           1860, British), Houses of Parliament.
    1840-65.  London.
    Eastnor Castle, drawing room.
    1849.  Ledbury, Herefordshire.
    Pugin, cloth for St. Augustine’s Abbey
    Ramsgate, Kent.
           Ceramic tile.
    1850.  Produced by Minton.
    William Morris , “Strawberry Thief” fabric.
          “Acanthus” wallpaper.
     1875.  Color print from wood blocks.
    Wightwick Manor, interior.
    c. 1887.  Wolverhampton, England.
    Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928, Scottish), Glasgow School of Art, board room.       Glasgow School of Art, studio doors
    Willow Tea Rooms, Room de Luxe.
    Mackintosh, Hill House, interior hall and bedroom.
    1904.  Helensburgh, Scotland.
    Antoni Plàcid Guillem Gaudí I Cornet, Casa Batlló and balconies.      1904-06.  Barcelona
    Casa Batlló, fireplace and door; interior staircase.
    Frank Lloyd Wright ,
    Frank Lloyd Wright Home and Studio, dining room.
    1889-95.  Oak Park, Illinois.
    Wright, Dana-Thomas House, reception area and bedroom.
    1902.  Springfield, Illinois.
    Wright, Edgar J. Kaufman Sr. House (Fallingwater).
    1936.  Bear Run, Pennsylvania.
    Elsie de Wolfe , Irving Place dining room.
           1897.  New York.
    de Wolfe, Villa Trianon, Pavilion of Music
           c. 1913.  Versailles, France.
           (Painting by) William Rankin,
    Le Corbusier (Charles-Édouard Jeanneret) and
           Pierre Jeanneret , Villa Savoye,
    1928-31.  Poissy-sur-Seine, France.
    Villa Savoye,  interior
    Villa Savoye,  rooftop terrace
    Le Corbusier, Chapel of Notre-Dame-du-Haut. 
    1950-55.  Ronchamp, France.
    Chapel of Notre-Dame-du-Haut, interior.
    Eileen Gray (1878-1976, Irish),block lacquered screen.
    Gray , Rue de Lota apartment.
    1922.  Paris.
         “Pirogue” daybed from Rue de Lota apartment.
           Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond.
    E1027 table
    Ludwig Mies van der Rohe , German Pavilion for the
          International Exhibition at Barcelona. 
    1929.  Barcelona.
    Mies van der Rohe and Lilly Reich , German Pavilion, interior
    Jacques-Emile Ruhlmann
    Musee des Arts Africains et Océaniens, salon.
    Fresco by Louis Bouquet.
    1931.  Paris
    Ruhlmann, “Chinoise” model vanity table and “Défences” chair.
    Lacquered by Jean Dunand (1877-1942, Swiss/French).
    Ruhlmann, chest.
           Amboyna wood with ivory.
    Donald Deskey , office above Radio City Music Hall.
    c. 1931.  Cherrywood paneling.  Furnishings in lacquered and veneered wood, Bakelite,
    and  brushed aluminum
    Desk (by Deskey for the Widdicomb Company).
           1935.  Walnut with aluminum pulls.
    Deskey, screen.
    1929.  Oil paint and metal leaf on canvas.
    Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Virginia
  • Dorothy Draper (1889-1969, American)
  • William Haines (1900-1973, American)
  • Tony Duquette (1914-1999, American)
  • Dorothy (“Sister”) Parish (?-1994, American)
  • Charles Eames (1907-78, American)
  • Ray Eames(1912-88, American)
  • Harry Bertoia, (1915-78, Italian)
  • Eero Saarinen (1910-91, Finnish)
  • Philip Cortelyou Johnson (1906-2005, American)
  • Frank O. Gehry (1929- , American)
  • Tadao Ando (1941- , Japanese)
  • Santiago Calatrava (1951- , Spanish)
  • Thom Mayne (1944 - , American)
  • Philippe Starck (1949 - French)
  • Sally Sirkin Lewis
  • Barbara Barry

  • Dorothy Draper Exhibition “In the Pink” at Museum of the City of New York.
    Draper, Hampshire House doors (as re-created at The Museum of the City of New York).
    Dorothy Draper , Hampshire House lobby.
          1937.  New York.
    Draper, Drake Hotel, Camellia House Restaurant doorway.
    Menu cover for Camellia House Restaurant.
    1941.  Chicago
    William Haines , Warner home, foyer.
    c. 1937.  Beverly Hills
    Crawford residence, living room.
    1949.  Brentwood.
    Brody Residence, interior.
    c. 1951. Holmby Hills
    May residence.
    1952.  Holmby Hills.
    "Ice crystal” sconce.1953
    Tony Duquette, Dawnridge, living room.
    Dawnridge, upstairs landing.
    Dawnridge, Malachite Room
     c. 1952.  Abalone shells
    Dorothy (“Sister”) Parish , Parish Residence, sitting room.
    Manhattan, New York
    Parish Residence, bedroom.
    Islesboro, Maine
    Charles Eames , Eames Studio Complex.
    1947.  Pacific Palisades
    Eames Studio Complex, living room
    Eames Studio Complex ,office interior
    Charles and Ray , Eames, plastic chairs.
    Knoll International, Dallas Showroom.
           (Photographed for Interiors Magazine July 1957.)
    Harry Bertoia, Diamond lounge chair designed for Knoll International
    Eero Saarinen , Tulip chair designed for Knoll International.
    Philip Cortelyou Johnson , Glass House.
    1949.  New Canaan, Connecticut
    Johnson/Burgee Architects Philip Cortelyou Johnson, and
          John Henry Burgee AT&T Building.
    1978-82.  New York.
    Johnson, bell tower for the Crystal Cathedral.
    1978-80.  Garden Grove, California.
    Frank O. Gehry , Gehry House. 
          1978.  Santa Monica.
    Gehry, Vitra Design Museum.
    1990.  Weil-am-Rhein, Germany.
    Gehry, Guggenheim Museum.
    1990.  Bilbao, Spain.
    Tadao Ando , Azuma House.
          1976.  Osaka, Japan.
    Ando, Pulitzer Foundation for the Arts.
    1997-2000.  St. Louis
    Ando, Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth.
    2002.  Fort Worth
    Santiago Calatrava, Campo Volantin Footbridge.
    1990-98.  Bilbao, Spain
    Calatrava, Milwaukee Art Museum, Quadracci Pavilion.
      2001.  Milwaukee
    Calatrava, Tenerife Concert Hall.
     2004.  Canary Islands, Spain
    Thom Mayne , Kate Mantilini Restaurant.
    1986.  Beverly Hills
    Mayne, Diamond Ranch High School.
    1999-2000.  Diamond Bar, California
    Mayne, Caltrans District 7 Headquarters.
      2004.  Los Angeles.
    Philippe Starck , interior for Royalton Hotel.
           1988.  New York.
    Starck, Clift Hotel interior (formerly the Redwood Room).
    c. 1996.  San Francisco
    Starck, Faenas Hotel.
    2005.  Buenos Aires
    Starck, chair and “Ghost” chair
    Sally Sirkin Lewis, interior
    Lewis, interior.
    Barbara Barry, interior
    Barry, interior

    Placeholder image

    My Tour Behind The Velvet Rope
    To Experience A Symphony in Wood

    Fundamentals of Interior Architecture
    Gary Roof

    With its dark Burma teak paneled walls, Douglas fir beams, white oak floors and Port Orford cedar porches, the 86-year-old Gamble House carries out what its admirers call a symphony in wood. -- A Special to The Times - Jeff Prugh, Contributor - July 29, 1994

    When visiting the Gamble House website to purchase my ticket for the docent tour, I found that the “Behind The Velvet Rope Tour” was being offered and being a former Pasadenan who enjoyed numerous ‘regular’ tours of the Gamble House with ‘snowbird’ family and friends, this 'more in depth' tour was especially appealing. However, there was one glitch…all tours before this paper’s due date were full. Taking full advantage of my recently acquired student status, I plead my case to the folks at Acme Technologies, the third party ticketing agent, and was given permission to join the tour. I suspect that Messrs. Greene would marvel at the extent to which technology has grown the notoriety and respect of their famous landmark structure

    The Architects

    Placeholder image The Gamble House and its furnishings were designed by Charles and Henry Greene, two brothers educated in a revolutionary late nineteenth century curriculum based on the education of the hand as well as the mind. This early prep-school training was clearly the source of the brother’s razor focus on tools, materials and the craftsmanship required in their quest for perfection in their craft.

    The brothers complemented one another architecturally with Henry providing a sense of order and conceptual vision while Charles provided imagination and an artistic eye. The firm’s path in Arts & Crafts design had its genesis when Charles was introduced to the English Arts and Crafts Movement while honeymooning for four months in England, Scotland and Europe in 1899. The movement in England took a mostly purist form where hand skills were honored above all. This particularly appealed to Charles as it recalled in him the overriding theme at prep school of an education of hands and mind.

    The Concept – Hand Craftmanship + Asian Aesthetics + Organic Design + Healthy Breezes

    Placeholder imageTrue to their educational foundation, the Brothers made quality paramount to all else in their commissions. At the time of the Gamble commission, Pasadena had attracted a large collection of fine craftsmen and artists with similar high standards and this assured that the brothers’ high quality standards were met. One such team of craftsmen was the Hall Brothers who built all Greene designed furniture at Gamble house and subsequent designs.
    Placeholder imageThe Asian Aesthetic was evident in all their designs after 1903. In that year, Charles purchased a copy of Japanese Homes and their Surroundings by Edward S. Morse. The organic design of Gamble House, as well as most of their commissions thereafter, was heavily influenced by Japanese architectural design. One particular example is the cloudlift motif evident throughout the house.

    The organic design of Gamble House, as well as most of their commissions thereafter, was heavily influenced by Japanese architectural design. One particular example is the cloudlift motif evident throughout the house. In 1893 during their move from Boston to Pasadena to be with their parents, the brothers visited the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago. There they saw examples of Japanese architecture which made a lasting impression upon them.

    From 1905 to 1907 the Greenes’ designs showed a transition from joinery as craft to joinery as aesthetic structure. This transition was fueled by their collaboration with brothers Peter Hall, Master Stair Builder (1867–1939) and John Hall, Fine Furniture Maker (1864–1940) who would build all furniture designed by the Greenes. This collaboration resulted in an era of superior wood craftsmanship, obsessive detailing, exquisite inlays, and satiny finishes. Emil Lange (1866–1934) and Harry Sturdy (1869–ca. 1915) were the Greenes’ preferred glass artisans.

    In the early 20th century, tuberculosis was still a major health challenge and Pasadena was thought to have an ideal climate for those recovering from the disease. It was thought that the wonderful airflow throughout the Arroyo was a major benefit in rehabilitation from the disease. One of the reasons the Gambles chose Pasadena was the therapeutic benefits of this ideal climate. Key elements in their organic design were numerous natural ventilation pathways through the home to benefit from the therapeutic breezes of the Arroyo.

    The Legacy

    Greene & Greene created homes that redefined the intersection of art and nature’s spaces. Families could then integrate their daily lives with the beauty and harmony of the land.. Few architects have understood this as clearly as Charles and Henry Greene. Fewer, still, have created such compelling work as The Gamble House.

    Design Inspiration: Marcel Breuer

    Fundamentals of Interior Architecture
    Gary Roof
    12-September 2016

    The Architect

    Marcel Breuer was born on 2-May-1902 in Pecs, Hungary.  HIs early studies were in the arts having won a scholarship to study art in Vienna.  Finding his studies unfulfilling, he found work at an architecture in Vienna. In 1920 he entered the Bauhaus as a student and teacher of carpentry.  While at the Bauhaus he designed his famous Cesca and Wassily chairs.  His studies at the Bauhaus introduced him to the masters of the era, Le Corbusier, Mies van der Rohe, and Walter Gropius.  Her would continue both an academic and business relationship with Gropius later in his career.

    In 1928 he left the Bauhaus and opened his own architectural practice in Berlin. For the next three years the practice was adversely affected by the oncoming Economic Depression and Breuer closed the practice.  He would reopen the business a year later when he received his commission for The Harnischmacher house in Wiesbaden.

    In 1935 he was forced to emigrate to London as he felt threatened by the rise of the Nazi party and he was Jewish.  In London he assumed a partnership with FRS Yorke.  In 1936 they completed the Gane Pavilion in Bristol and it was Breuer's first design combining wood and stone and this combination was to appear many times throughout his career.

    Breuer moved to America in 1937 to assume a professorship at Harvard Graduate School of Design and a renewed association with Walter Gropius, one of the founders of the Bauhaus.  It was Walter who suggested he apply for the professorship.    In the coming years he and Walter designed several houses together including Gropius's own house.

    In 1941 Breuer moved to New York to setup his own practice there and this proved to be one of the most productive periods of his career.  In 1953 Breuer designed the UNESCO HQ in Paris which was his largest institutional structure to date.

    In 1956 Breuer began using concrete as his primary building material.  His Whitney Museum of American Art in New York complete in 1966 is a prime example of this.

    Breuer continued to be productive until he retired in 1976.  His personal favorite was IBM's La Gaude Laboratory in France.

    Marcel Breuer died in 1981 after a long illness.


    Lasting Take Aways

    I love to travel and find that Europe remains my favorite…Germany in particular.  My recent research of what I call the modernist masters, Breuer included, has provided me some of the answers as to why I love returning to visit Germany. The answer is that I find the architecture fascinating causing me to return again and again.  Heretofore i thought it was only the people which I loved so much but I am now able to put my finger on what else it is.  And that is the genius designs of the modernist masters, European chapter.

    In the case of Breuer, I find his combinations of materials to be quite appealing.  Add metal to wood and I find that to be a winning combination.  All in all I think I find Breuer's wide range to be what keeps me coming back to study and appreciate his work as well as the rest to the Bauhaus masters.

     And so my research continues…along with more travel…