Designers of the Italian Renaissance Period

  • Andrea di Pietro (Palladio) (1508-80, Italian)
  • Andrea Mantegna (c. 1431-1506, Italian)
  • Andrea Pisano (c. 1290- 1349, Italian)
  • Arnolfo di Cambio, et. al. (c. 1245-1310, Italian)
  • Bacchiacca (1494-1557, Italian)
  • Benedetto da Maiano (1442-1497, Italian)
  • Benozzo Gozzoli (c. 1421-1497, Italian)
  • Bronzino (Agnolo di Cosimo) (1503-72, Italian)
  • Donatello (c. 1386-1466, Italian)
  • Donato d’Angelo Bramante (1444-1514, Italian)
  • Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446, Italian)
  • Francesco di Giorgio Martini (Italian,1439–1502)
  • Francesco Xanti Avelli (c. 1487-c. 1542, Italian)
  • Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola (Italian, 1507–1573)
  • Giovanni Antonio Bazzi (1477-1549, Italian)
  • Giuliano da Majano (Italian,1432–1490)
  • Jacopo da Pontormo (1494-1557, Italian)
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519, Italian)
  • Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455, Italian)
  • Luca della Robbia (1400-1482, Italian)
  • Marco del Buono Giamberti (1402–1489)
  • Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564, Italian)
  • Michelozzo di Bartolommeo (1396-1472, Italian)
  • Orazio Fontana (c. 1510-1571, Italian)
  • Paolo Uccello (1397-1475, Italian)
  • Piero della Francesca (c. 1420-1492, Italian)
  • Sandro Botticelli (1444-1510, Italian)
  • Vittore Carpaccio (c. 1450-1525, Italian)

  • Designs of the Period


    Florence Cathedral - Armolfo di Cambio, Filippo Brunelleschi

    Arnolfo di Cambio Florence Cathedral (Santa Maria del Fiore). begun 1296.  Florence.
    Filippo Brunelleschi Florence Cathedral dome.       1420-1436.  Florence.
     
    Florence Cathedral façade
    Detail of marble, Florence Cathedral.
    Piazza del Duomo. Florence.
    Florence Cathedral Baptistery (Baptistery of San Giovanni).
        
    Florence Cathedral Baptistry

    Floerence Cathedral Baptistry - Andrea Pisano

    Andrea Pisano Florence Cathedral Baptistery, south door. 1330-36.  Gilded bronze relief.
    Brunelleschi/Lorenzo Ghiberti Sacrifice of Isaac. 1401-02.  Gilded bronze relief. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence
    Ghiberti Florence Cathedral Baptistry, north door. 1404-1424.  Gilded bronze relief
    Ghiberti Adoration of the Magi (from Florence Cathedral Baptistry, north door.)        1404-24.
    Ghiberti Florence Cathedral Baptistery, east door (“Gates of Paradise”). 1425-52.  Gilded bronze relief.
     
    Ghiberti The Story of Joseph (from Florence Cathedral Baptistery, east door). 1425-52.  Gilded bronze relief.
    Ghiberti Isaac Sends Isaiah to Hunt (from Florence Cathedral Baptistery, east door). 1425-52.  Gilded bronze relief.
    GhibertiSelf-portrait.  (from Florence Cathedral Baptistery, east door). 1425-52.  Gilded bronze relief.

    Palazzo Medici - Michelozzo di Bartolommeo

    Michelozzo di Bartolommeo Palazzo Medici-Riccardi. 1444-64 (expanded by the Riccardi family in the 17th century).  Florence.
    Palazzo Medici-Riccardi
    Palazzo Medici-Riccardi
    Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, detail of cornice
    Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, courtyard
    Plan of ground floor of Palazzo Medici-Riccardi
    Plan of piano nobile of Palazzo Medici-Riccardi
    Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Chapel of the Magi. Frescoes by Benozzo Gozzoli
    Procession of the Magi, east wall of Chapel of the Magi
    Cosimo de Medici and Piero de Medici, detail from Procession of the Magi
    Giuliano de Medici, detail from Procession of the Magi
    Lorenzo de Medici, detail from Procession of the Mag
    Velvet fabric with Medici arms.  1440-1500.  Silk and metal thread.

    Tempietto - Donato d'Angelo Bramante

    1502.  San Pietro in Montoiro, Rome.

    Villa Rotonda - Andrea Palladio

    1566-69.  Vicenza, Italy.
    Cross-section of interior
    Villa Rotunda, interior
    Villa Rotunda, interior

    Leonardo da Vinci

    Mona Lisa (La Giocanda). c. 1503-05.  Oil on wood. Musée du Louvre, Paris
    Proportions of Man. 1492.  Pen and ink. Gallerie dell’Accademia, Venice
    Study of the Construction and Control of a Wing. 1490.  Pen and ink

    Michelangelo Buonarroti

    Sistine Chapel. 1508-12.  Fresco.  Vatican City, Rome.
    Creation of Man, detail from Sistine Chapel ceiling
    Libyan Sibyl, detail from Sistine Chapel ceiling
    Last Judgment. Detail of St. Bartholomew. 1537-41.  Sistine Chapel, east wall
    Last Judgment, detail of the Boatman Charon
    David. 1504.  Marble.   Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence
    Tomb of Giuliano de’ Medici. 1519-34. Marble. San Lorenzo, Florence
    Laurentian Library, vestibule and staircase. 1524-68. Monastery of San Lorenzo, Florence.
    Laurentian Library, vestibule and staircase. 1524-68.  Monastery of San Lorenzo, Florence.
    Laurentian Library, reading room.

    The Art of the Cassone

    Cassone.        Early 15th century.  Poplar with iron handles. Riksmuseum, Amsterdam
          
    Cassone. Late 15th century.  Philadelphia Museum of Art
    Marco del Buono Giamberti Cassone with front panel depicting the Conquest of Trebizond. 1461–65.  Painted and gilded gesso on poplar, set with a wooden panel painted in tempera and gold.   Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    Detail of cassone with front panel depicting the Conquest of Trebizond
    Detail from cassone with front panel depicting the Conquest of Trebizond
    Biagio d’Antonio, Zanobi di Domenico, and Jacobo del Sellaio Nerli Cassone. 1472.  Wood.   Courtauld Institute Galleries, London
    Detail and interior of Nerli Cassone
    D’Antonio, Di Domenico, and Del Sellaio, Morelli Cassone. 1472.  Wood.   Courtauld Institute Galleries, London
    Detail of Morelli Cassone
    Detail of Nerli Cassone Detail of Morelli Cassone
    Cassone. c. 1500.  Walnut, ebony, and ivory with iron fittings.   Rijksmuseum, Netherlands
    Detail of cassone
    Cassone with relief of Apollo. 3rd quarter of 16th century.  Walnut. Frick Collection, New York
    Cassone with relief of Phaeton. c.1600.  Walnut.   Minneapolis Museum of Art
    Details from cassone with relief of Phaeton
    Cassone with relief of David and Goliath
    Details from cassone with relief of David and Goliath

    The Art of Pietra dure

    Table made for the Palazzo Farnese, Rome. Mid-16th century.  Marble, alabaster, and semi-precious stones.   Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    Detail of table from Palazzo Farnese
    Pietre dure panel.        Opificio delle Pietre Dure e Laboratori di Restauro, Florence

    The Art of Inlay

    Francesco di Giorgio Martini and Giuliano da Majano Studiolo from the Ducal Palace in Gubbio c. 1476.  Walnut, beech, rosewood, oak, and fruitwoods on walnut base.   Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    Studiolo from the Ducal Palace in Gubbio
    Studiolo from the Ducal Palace in Gubbio, detail
    Studiolo from the Ducal Palace in Gubbio, detail
    Diagram of inlay process
    Ceiling detail from the Ducal Palace in Gubbio. Photo of conservation studio of the ceiling from the Ducal Palace in Gubbio

    Tables & Chairs & Such

    Sgabello. 1500-1550.   Walnut
    Sgabello. 1580-1600.  Walnut, partially gilded.   Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
    Panchetto. 16th century. 
    Panchetto. c. 1489-91. Walnut, maple, ebony, ebonized wood, fruitwood, traces of gilding and red paint. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    Savonarola chair. c. 1500.  Walnut with inlay of ivory and metal. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.       Detail from similar chair.
    Dante chair. 16th century.  Walnut with certosina (bone or ivory) inlay. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
               
    Sedia (armchair). Late 16th century.  Walnut with leather upholstery. Borghese Palace, Rome
    Sedia.  Early 17th century.  Walnut
    Stool.  Second half of 16th century.  Museo Bardini, Florence
    Refectory table. 16th century. Walnut

    Furnishings at Palazzo Davanzati - Benedetto da Maiano

    Sala dei Pappagalli.
    c. 1350 Florence
    Sala dei Pappagalli
    Detail from Sala dei Pappagalli
    Sala dei Pavoni.
    Sala dei Pavoni
    Detail from Sala dei Pavoni

    Various Others

    Vittore Carpaccio The Dream of Saint Ursula. 1495.  Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice.
     
    Giovanni Antonio Bazzi The Wedding of Alexander and Roxana. 1514.  Oil on canvas. Villa Farnesina, Rome.
    Jacopo da Pontormo (1494-1557, Italian), Descent from the Cross. 1525-1528.  oil on wood.  Capponi Chapel, Santa Felicità, Florence.
    Bronzino (Agnolo di Cosimo) (1503-72, Italian), Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time         (The Exposure of Luxury). c. 1546.  Oil on wood.  National Gallery, London.
    Jan van Tiegham, The Miraculous Draft of Fishes (from a design by Raphael) 1545-57.  Wool and silk.  Soprintendenza per Il Patrimonio Storico, Artistico e Demoetnoantropologico di Brescia, Cremona e Mantova
    Willem de Pannemaker, Perseus Liberating Andromeda (from a design attributed to Pieter Coecke van Aelst)  Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. c. 1556.  Wool and silk.  Patrimonio Nacional, Palacio Real de la Granja de San Ildefonso.
    Francesco Xanti Avelli Plate with the Abduction of Helen. 1534. Tin-glazed earthenware (maiolica). The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Candelieri plate. 1540-60.  Tin-glazed earthenware (maiolica). The Getty Museum, Los Angeles.
    Orazio Fontana Basin with Deucalion and Pyrrha c.1565-71. Tin-glazed earthenware. The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Fontana Pilgrim flask. c. 1565-70.  Tin-glazed earthenware.      The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    A Sixteenth Century Room

    Designers of the French Renaissance Period

  • Benvenuto Cellini (1500-71, Italian)
  • Bernard Palissy, (1510–1589, French)
  • Domenico da Cortona (?) (1484-1546, Italian)
  • Étienne Delaune (c.1518-83, French)
  • Francesco Primaticcio (c.1504 – 1570, Italian)
  • François Clouet (1515-72, French)
  • François Quesnel (1542-1619, French)
  • Hugues Sambin (c. 1515 –1602, French)
  • Jacques Androuet du Cerceau (c. 1520 –1584, French)
  • Jean Clouet (c. 1485-1541, French)
  • Jean Cousin the Elder (French, c. 1500-1560)
  • Jean Marot (c. 1450-1526)
  • Limbourg Brothers (c.1370-1416, Dutch)
  • Philibert de l’Orme (c. 1510-70, French)
  • Pierre Lescot (1515-1578, French)
  • Rosso Fiorentino (1495-1540, Italian)

  • Francis I - 1515-1547

    Jean Clouet Portrait of Francis I. 1525.  Oil and tempera on wood.  Musée du Louvre, Paris
    Limbourg Brothers Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry:  Septembre       1412-16. Musee Conde, Chantilly, France

    Château de Chambord - Domenico da Cortona

    Château de Chambord.       1519-1547.  Chambord, France
    Aerial view of Château de Chambord
    Château de Chambord, staircase
    Château de Chambord, double-helix staircase
    Château de Chambord, interior of double-helix staircase
    Château de Chambord, view up to lantern of double-helix staircase
    Château de Chambord, coffered room
    Château de Chambord, salamander and "F" design on coffered ceiling

    Château d'Azay le Rideau

    Château d'Azay le Rideau.      1518-29.  Azay le Rideau, France
    Château d'Azay le Rideau, salamander panel
    Château d'Azay le Rideau, bedroom

    Henry II - 1547-1559

    François Clouet - Henry II and Catherine de Medici; Francesco Primaticcio - Diane de Poitiers
    Symbols of Henri II and Catherine de Medici on the left and Dianes modified version, HD, on the right..

    Château de Chenonceau

    Château de Chenonceau.  Begun 1513.  Chenonceaux, France
    Aerial view of Château de Chenonceau
    Château de Chenonceau, aerial view of gardens
    Château de Chenonceau, guard tower
    Château de Chenonceau, central passage
    Château de Chenonceau, kitchen spit
    Château de Chenonceau, Bedroom of the Five Queens
    Château de Chenonceau, Bedroom of the Five Queens
    Château de Chenonceau, bedroom of Catherine de Medici.
    Château de Chenonceau, bedroom of Diane de Poitier
    Château de Chenonceau, bedroom of Diane de Poitier

    Château de Fontainbleau - Philibert de l’Orme

    Château de Fontainebleau.
    Fontainebleau, France.
    Château de Fontainebleau, entry gate
    Château de Fontainebleau, staircase.
    Château de Fontainebleau, Gallery of the Stags.
    Château de Fontainebleau, Gallery of the Stags, detail of ceiling
    Château de Fontainebleau, Gallery of Francois I
    Château de Fontainebleau, gardens.
    Château de Fontainebleau, Fountain of Diana

    Henry III - 1574-1589

    Portrait of Henry III of France in Polish hat
    c. 1580-1586
    Attr. to Francois Quesnel

    Château de Blois

    Château de Blois
    13th – 17th centuries
    Blois, France.
    Château de Blois, porcupine panel and dolphin waterspout.
    Château de Blois, bedroom of Henry III. Note H in the floor tiles
    Château de Blois, bedroom of Henry IV.
    Château de Blois, Cabinet of Catherine de Medici (Chamber of Secrets).
    Château de Blois, Cabinet of Catherine de Medici, ceiling detail

    Other Designs of the Period

    Château de Amboise, great hall
    Château le Lude, gallery
    Château de Brissac, bedroom
    The Drowning of Britomartis 1547-59.  The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
    Wall Fresco. c. 1500.  Chateau Rochechouart, France.
    Jean Marot Le Voyage de Gênes, The Book given by its Author to Queen Anne de Bretagne.       1507.
    Benvenuto Cellini Salt cellar of Francois I.       1539-43.  Gold with enamel.  Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
    Attr. to Bernard Palissy Platter       c. 1550.  Lead-glazed earthenware.  The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Étienne Delaune Armor of Henry II c. 1555.  Embossed, blued, silvered, and gilded steel.  Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    Throne chair Late 15th century. Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris
    Throne chair First half of 16th century.  Oak.  Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    Armchair. c. 1590.  Walnut and ebony.  The Frick Collection, New York
     
    Armchair Second half of 16th century.  The Frick Collection, New York
    Caquetoire c. 1575.  Carved walnut.  The Frick Collection, New York
    Dresser        Early 15th century.  Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris
    Dresser c. 1524.  Oak.  From the collection of Château de Joinville, Musée National de la Renaissance, Écouen, France
    Attr. to Hugues Sambin Cupboard c. 1570.  Walnut
    Cupboard. Late 16th century.  National Art Museum, Bucharest
    Cabinet c. 1580.  Walnut, oak, paint, brass, and iron.  The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Jacques Androuet du Cerceau Design for table First half of 16th century
    Draw table. Second half of 16th century.  Walnut.  The Frick Collection, New York
     
    Coffre First quarter of 16th century.  Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris
    Coffre des Travaux d’Hercule. 1543.  Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris
    Du Cerceau Bed 16th century

    Designers of the Baroque Period

  • Italian Baroque
    • Andrea Brustolon (1662-1732, Italian)
    • Antonio Corradini (1668-1752, Italian)
    • Artemesia Gentileschi (c. 1593-1653, Italian)
    • Carlo Maderno (1556-1629, Italian)
    • Filippo Parodi (1630-1702, Italian)
    • Franceso Borromini (1599-1667, Italian)
    • Giacomo della Porta (c. 1533-1602, Italian)
    • Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680, Italian)
    • Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564, Italian)
    • Michelangelo Merisi (Caravaggio) (1573-1610, Italian)
  • German Baroque
    • Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753, German)
    • Ferdinand Pflitzner (German)
    • François de Cuvilliés (1695-1768, Flemish)
    • Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff (1699-1753, German)
    • Joachim Dietrich (?) (1690-1753, German)
    • Johan Paul Schor (1615-74, Austrian)
    • Johann Conrad Schlaun (1695-1773, German)
    • Matthias Daniel Pöppelmann (1662-1736, German)
    • Philipp Hainhofer (1578-1647, German)
  • Spanish Baroque
    • Diego Velázquez (1599-1660, Spanish)
    • Fernando de Casas y Novoa (Spanish)
    • Francisco de Zurbarán (1598-1664, Spanish)
    • Pedro de Ribera (c. 1681-1742, Spanish)

    Characteristics of Baroque

  • Complicated shapes
  • Large curved forms
  • Twisted Columns
  • Grand stairways
  • High domes
  • Trompe l’oeil paintings

  • Designs of the Period


    Italian Baroque

    Saint Peter's Basilica
    Facade by Carlo Maderno
    Piazza by Gianlorenzo Bernini
    Saint Peter’s Basilica, interior.
    Bernini, Baldacchino. 1624-33.  Gilded bronze.  Saint Peter’s Basilica
    Saint Peter’s Basilica, interior of dome
    Dome designed by Michelangelo Buonarroti in 1547, completed by Giacomo della Porta. 
    Saint Peter’s Basilica, interior of dome
    Franceso Borromini, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. 1665-1676.  Rome

    San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, interior of dome
    Borromini, Saint Ivo della Sapienza. Begun 1642.  Rome

    Saint Ivo della Sapienza, interior of dome
    Bernini, Ecstasy of Saint Theresa 1645-52.  Marble.  Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome
    Bernini,Four Rivers Fountain. 1648-51.  Travertine and Marble.  Piazza Navona, Rome
    Bernini, David. 1623.  Marble.  Galleria Borghese, Rome
    Michelangelo Merisi (Caravaggio), Conversion of St. Paul. c. 1601.  Oil on canvas.  Cerasi Chapel, Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome
    Artemesia Gentileschi, Judith Slaying Holofernes. c. 1614-20.  Oil on canvas.  Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
    Hearst Castle, sitting room. 1923.  San Simeon, California
    Armchair. Late 17th century.  Gilded wood with embroidered velvet.  The Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg
    Armchair. 2nd half of 17th century.  Wood.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London
    Andrea Brustolon, Armchair c. 1690.  Boxwood
    Armchair c. 1620-30.  Mahogany with inlaid oak.  The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Cabinet. c. 1650-70.  Ebony and tortoiseshell with painted panels
    Prie-dieu. c. 1621. Ebony, marble, and pietre dure. Palazzo Pitti, Florence
    Table. c. 1730.  Gilt wood with top of scagliola
    Side table. 1720-30.  Gilt wood with marble top.  The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Table. 17th century
    Filippo Parodi, Mirror. 17th century Museo di Palazzo Rosso, Genoa
    Bed Mid-17th century.  Wood

    Spanish Baroque

    Diego Velázquez, Las Meninas. 1656.  Museo del Prado, Madrid
    Francisco de Zurbarán, St. Francis Kneeling. 1635-39.  Oil on canvas.  National Gallery, London
    Fernando de Casas y Novoa Catedral Santiago de Compostela. 1738-1750. Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    Pedro de Ribera Hospicio de San Fernando 1722.  Madrid
    Bed. Late 17th century. Wood and brasswork. Museo de Artes Decorativas, Madrid
    Hearst Castle, interior. c. 1920s.  San Simeon, California
    Hearst Castle, interior. c. 1920s.  San Simeon, California Armorial banner. 17th century.  Gold, silver, and colored silks
    Hearst Castle, library. c. 1920s.  San Simeon, California
    Hearst Castle, Casa del Sol, bedroom. c. 1920s.  San Simeon, California
    Parador San Juan de Dios, interior. San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico
    Chair. c. 1675.  Chestnut
    Folding table. c. 1700.  Gold-painted motifs on black ground, imitation lacquer, iron stretchers. Victoria and Albert Museum, London
    Cabinet w/ Certosina marquetry c. 1600. Wood inlaid with ivory. Museo de Artes Decorativas, Barcelona
    Vargueño. Early 17th century.  Walnut
    Coffer lock and key. Early 16th century.  Wrought iron.  Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    Covered vases.        Late 17th-early 18th century.  Tin-glazed and luster-painted earthenware. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    Bowl.  16th century.  Tin-glazed and luster-painted earthenware. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


    German Baroque

    Matthias Daniel Pöppelmann
    Zwinger
    1697-1716
      Dresden, Germany
    Zwinger, pavilion
    Zwinger, detail of pavilion herms
    Zwinger, Crown Tower
    Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff Sanssouci, Marble Hall 1745-47  Potsdam, Germany
    Sanssouci, garden front with vineyard
    Sanssouci, Marble Hall
    Sanssouci, Music Room
    Johann Conrad Schlaun, Erbdrostenhof 1753-57.  Münster, Germany
    Erbdrostenhof, Great Hall
    Schlaun and François de Cuvilliés, Augustusburg Palace. 1724 and 1728-40.  Brühl
    Augustusburg Palace, Nepomuk Chapel
    Augustusburg Palace, dining room
    Balthasar Neumann, Augustusburg Palace, staircase hall.1741-44
    Schloss-Favorite, dining room. Early 18th century. Baden-Baden, Germany
    Ferdinand Pflitzner, Schloss Pommersfelden, mirror room. Early 18th century. Franconia, Germany
    Chair. c. 1765. Walnut with damask upholstery. Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin
    de Cuvilliés and Joachim Dietrich Commode. c. 1740.  Painted and gilded pine, marble top. The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Seehof garden furniture. c. 1764-64.  Painted and gilded lindenwood
    Johan Paul Schor, Side table. c. 1670.  Gilt wood.  The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Philipp Hainhofer, Cabinet. 1624. Wood with polychrome inlay. Palazzo Pitti, Florence

    Designers of the French Baroque Period

  • André Le Nôtre (1613-1700, French)
  • André-Charles Boulle (1642–1732, French)
  • Antoine Coysevox (1640 – 1720, French)
  • Charles Le Brun (1619-90, French)
  • Charles Le Brun (1619-90, French)
  • Guy-Louis Vernansal (1648 - 1729, French)
  • Hyacinthe Rigaud (1659-1743, French)
  • Jean-Baptiste Monnoyer (1636-1699 French)
  • Jules Hardouin-Mansart (1646-1708, French)
  • Louis Le Vau (1612-70, French)
  • Paul Delaroche (1797-1856, French)
  • Pierre Golle (c. 1620-84, French)

  • French Baroque period does not have the religious overtones that the Italian and Spanish did.
  • Louis XIV father Louis XIII had been under siege by the aristocrats because he had tried to limit the perks of the ruling class. In a backlash called Le Fronde (1648-1653), French for “the slingshot”, those in the uprising used slingshots to break windows in the palace and Louis XIV, his mother Anna of Austria and Cardinal Mazarin had to flee.
  • Little Louis was 5 when his father Louis XIII died in 1643 and 10 when Le Fronde started. When Louis grew up he wanted to be out of Paris so this would not happen to him and he moved his court to a hunting lodge in Versailles. He married Maria Therese of Spain and had more mistresses than anyone else on the throne. To Versailles, he brought Italian craftsmen and the center of western design was brought to France.
  • From 1660-1789 money was being spent on the court and the people revolted. Louis continued the Fontainebleau School and the tapestries were produced at the Gobelins Manufactory.
  • Louis Fouquet was his finance minister and made the mistake of building Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte for himself. Louis was concerned that this money was coming out of his coffers. At one of his grand parties, Moliere, a dramatist, put on a huge play and he truly controlled the scene, thereupon the garden elements began to move and the play began. A model whale came drifting up the canal. Louis was not pleased and put Fouchet into jail for spending the king’s money.

  • Designs of the Period

    Hyacinthe Rigaud Portrait of Louis XIV. 1702.  Oil on canvas.  Musée du Louvre, Paris
    Paul Delaroche Cardinal Mazarin Dying. 1830.  Oil on canvas.

    Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte - Louis Le Vau & Jules Hardouin-Mansart

    Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte. 1658-61.  Maincy, France
    Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte
    Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte, façade facing garden
    Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte, Grand Salon
    Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte, King’s Bedroom
    Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte, detail on ceiling of King’s Bedroom
    Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte, Fouquet’s bedroom
    Chateau de Vaux-le-Vicomte, interior
    Chateau de Vaux-le-Vicomte, interior detail
    Chateau de Vaux-le-Vicomte, gardens

    Château de Versailles - Le Vau & Hardouin-Mansart

    Château de Versailles. 1661-1774.  Versailles, France.
    Château de Versailles, Grand Courtyard
    Château de Versailles, façade of Grand Courtyard
    Château de Versailles, detail of roofline
    Château de Versailles, La Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors
    Château de Versailles, Hall of Mirrors.
    Château de Versailles, Salon de la Guerre (War Room). Relief of Louis XIV in the War Room. 1678.  Stucco.
     
    Bedroom of Louis XIV.

    Le Brun The Visit of Louis XIV to the Gobelins Manufactory. on October 15, 1667. Musée National du Château de Versailles.
    Jean-Baptiste Monnoyer The Offering to Bacchus (from The Grotesques Series). c. 1690-1730. The Getty Museum, Los Angeles.
    Guy-Louis Vernansal & Monnoyer The Camel (from The Grotesques Series). c. 1690-1730.    The Getty Museum, Los Angeles.
    Fauteuil. c. 1700.
    Fauteuil. c. late 17th century
    Footstool. c. late 17th century
    Bed. c. 1660.  Musée du Louvre, Paris
    Attr. to André-Charles Boulle Cabinet. 1678-80. The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Interior of cabinet
    Detail of marquetry on cabinet
    Diagram of wood-cutting techniques
    Examples of wood
    Example of marquetry assembly
    Mazarin desk. c. 1670, Château du Plessis-Bourré
    Attr. to Boulle, Cabinet. Musée National du Château de Versailles
    Boulle Coffers on stands.1680-85. The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Drawer in coffer
    Interior of coffer
    Première partie marquetry inside coffer. Contre partie marquetry inside coffer
    Attr. to BoulleTable
    1675-85, The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Attr. to BoulleTable.
    c. 1680, The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Attr. to Pierre Golle Tripod table.c. 1680, The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Boulle Commode.
    c. 1710-32,   Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
    Detail of gilt bronze mount.
    Detail of gilt bronze mount
    Boulle Commode.
    c. 1710-1715, The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Régence room
    c. 1719 Painted and gilded oak.  The Getty Museum, Los Angeles

    Designers of the French Rococo Period

  • Alexis Simon Belle (c. 1674 – 1734, French)
  • Ange-Jacques Gabriel (1698-1782, French)
  • Bernard van Risenburgh (c. 1696-1766, French)
  • Charles Cressent (1685-1768, French)
  • Charles Voison (1685-1781, French)
  • François Bouchard (1703-70, French)
  • Gabriel and Jacques Verbeckt (1704-1771, Flemish)
  • Jean Avisse, (1723-c.1796, French)
  • Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806, French)
  • Jean-Pierre Latz (c. 1691-1754, French)
  • John-Baptiste Tilliard (1686-1766, French)
  • Mathieu Criard (c. 1689-1787, French)

  • Designs of the Period

    Portrait of Louis XV. c. 1730s.  Château de Versailles
    Portrait of Marquise de Pompadour. 1756.  Oil on canvas. Alte Pinakothek, Munich.
    The Swing. 1766.  Oil on canvas. Wallace Collection, London.
    Château de Compiègne. 1751-88
    Le Petit Trianon. 1762-68.  Versailles
    Pavilion at Le Petit Trianon
    Detail of Pavilion at Le Petit Trianon
    office of Louis XV. 1738.  Versailles
    Reception room of Dauphine Marie-Josèphe de Saxe (daughter of Louis XV). Versailles
    Paneled room. c. 1755.  Painted and gilded oak. The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Window wall of paneled room (from image above).
    Over-door painting of paneled room (from image above). Oil on canvas.
    Commode. c. 1735.  The Getty Museum, Los Angeles.
    Detail of bronze mount on commode (from image above).
    Commode. c. 1745-50. The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Commode. c. 1740. The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Detail of lacquer on commode (from image above).
    Corner cabinet. c. 1740.  The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Detail of lacquer on commode (from image above).
    Commode with Japanese lacquer. c. 1745.  Japanese lacquer. The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Commode. Chinese lacquer.  Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris.
    Commode with Sèvres placques. 1758.  Private collection.
    Commode. 1742.  Lacquer work and silvered bronze mounts. Musée du Louvre, Paris
    Detail of commode
    (attributed to) Boulle,bureau plat. c. 1725. The Getty Museum, Los Angeles.
    Bureau plat. 1759.  Red vernis Martin lacquer.  Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
    Double desk.   c. 1750. The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    <em>Bed. </em> c. 1750-60.  Gilded beechwood with modern silk fabric.        The Getty Museum, Los Angeles.
    Bed. c. 1750-60.  The Getty Museum, Los Angeles.
    Fireplace and trumeau mirror. 1730-40.   
    Detail of trumeau mirror
    Fauteuil. c. 1750-55.  The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Louis XV fauteuil. Musée Vouland, Avignon, France
    Louis XV bergère. Carved beech and cane. Fondation Angladon, Avignon, France.
    Pair of ewers. Porcelain:  Chinese, 1736-1795; Mounts:  French 1745-1749. The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Vincennes porcelain plates (Blue Céleste service), 1753-54
    Sèvres teapot. 1758
    Sèvres marronière (chestnut basket). 1758
    Chantilly Porcelain Manufactory, pair of Magot figures. c. 1740.      The Getty Museum, Los Angeles.
    Sugar bowl and teapot. 1732-33.  Silver-gilt
    sauceboat. 1762.  Silver and silver-gilt.   The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Painted silk panel. Mid-18th century
    Chinese wallpaper 1753
    Toile de Jouy fabric. 18th century
    Toile de Jouy fabric. 18th century
    Savonnerie screen. c. 1714-40.  Designs by Alexandre-François Desportes and Jean-Baptiste Belin de Fontenay.
    Wall clock. c. 1740.  The Getty Museum, Los Angeles
    Detail of monkey on wall clock

    Designers of the French Neo-classical Period

  • Ange-Jacques Gabriel (1698-1782, French)
  • Antoine François Callet (1741-1823, French)
  • Bernard Moliter (1755-1833, French)
  • Claude I Sené (French)
  • Claude-Nicolas Ledoux (1736-1806, French)
  • Elisabeth Louise Vigee-LeBrun (1755-1842, French)
  • François Toussaint Foliot (c. 1715-98, French)
  • Gilles Joubert (1689-1775, French)
  • Jacques Gondoin (1737-1818, French)
  • Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825, French)
  • Jean-Henri Riesener (1734-1806, German/French)
  • Jean-Jacques Pierre le Jeune (c 1745-1800, French)
  • Jean-Siméon Rousseau de la Rottière, (1747-1820, French)
  • Jules-Hughes Rousseau (1743-1806, French)
  • Martin Carlin (c 1730-1785, German/French)
  • René DuBois (1737-99, French)
  • Richard Mique (1728-1794, French)

  • Designs of the Period

    Louis XVI. c. 1780s.  Oil on canvas.  Château de Versailles
    Portrait of Marie Antoinette. c. 1783.  Oil on canvas.  Château de Versailles
    Saline Royal d’Arc-et-Senans, gatehouse. 1775-79 (partly constructed).  Chaux, France
    Saline Royal d’Arc-et-Senans, entrance portico
    Saline Royal d’Arc-et-Senans, director’s residence
    Saline Royal d’Arc-et-Senans, director’s residence, detail of columns
    Saline Royal d’Arc-et-Senans, detail of drain
    Le Petit Trianon, reception room.
    Le Petit Trianon, reception room
    Le Petit Trianon, plaster detail
    Queen’s Bedchamber at Versailles
    Queen’s Bedchamber at Versailles, details
    Queen’s Bedchamber at Versailles, details
    LeDoux, architect; painted panels by Jean-Siméon Rousseau de la Rottière and Jules-Hughes Rousseau, paneled room. 1795.  Paris. 
    Paneled room, detail (from slide above).
    Paneled room, detail (from slide above).
    Painted panels. c. 1795.  Gouache on silk with gold paint.  The Getty Museum, Los Angeles.
    Painted panels, detail (from slide no. 14 above.)
    Writing table Plaques by Jean-Baptiste-Emmanuel Vandé(porcelain painter),  c. 1778.   The Getty Museum, Los Angeles.
    Secrétaire à abattant (writing desk). c. 1775,   The Getty Museum, Los Angeles.
    Rolltop desk. c. 1788. The Getty Museum, Los Angeles.
    Cartonnier. 1765.  Lacquer and gilt bronze mounts.  Wallace Collection, London.
    Commode. 1769.    The Getty Museum, Los Angeles.
    (Attributed to) Jean-Henri RiesenerSecrétaire.  c. 1785. 
    Claude I Sené (French), fauteuils en medallion. 1770-80.  Beauvais tapestry.
    Jacques Gondoin (1737-1818, French) and  François Toussaint Foliot (c. 1715-98,       French), slipper chair. c. 1780-81.  The Getty Museum, Los Angeles.
    Bed (Lit à la Polonaise). c. 1775-80.  The Getty Museum, Los Angeles.
    Gobelins Tapestry Manufactory, “Venus at the Forge of Vulcan” tapestry (from the Hangings of François Boucher Series.) 1775-78.  Wool and silk.  The Getty Museum, Los Angeles.
    Wall light.        c. 1765-70.  Gilt bronze.  The Getty Museum, Los Angeles.
    Le Hameau (The Hamlet). 1783-85. Château de Versailles
    Oath of the Horatii. 1784.  Oil on canvas.  Musée du Louvre, Paris.

    Designers of the English Renaissance Period

  • Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641, Flemish)
  • Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543, German)
  • Inigo Jones (1573-1652, British)
  • John Thorpe (c.1565-1655, English)
  • Nicholas Hilliard (c. 1547-1619, British)
  • Paulus van Somer (c. 1576-1621, Flemish)
  • Robert Lyminge (active 1607-28, English)
  • Robert Smythson (1525-1614, British)

  • Backdrop

  • Henry VIII reign was 1509-1547 and he was the father of the English renaissance. He was married to Catherine of Aragon. They had a daughter Mary who was catholic like her mother. Henry met a young tart, Anne Boleyn and wants to divorce Catherine. Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain were Anne’s parents. He started his own church, The Protestant church of England because Catholics do not allow divorce. He burns and loots the homes of Catholics and kicks out all Catholic monks from their monasteries. The craftsmen also needed to escape because the monasteries were their center of learning so they went to France Spain and Italy for refuge and training.
  • English Renaissance craftsmanship is rough because the good craftsmen fled from the religious persecution. Henry brought up Italian craftsmen who had then had to keep their religion(catholic) on the down low.
  • English Tudor houses had libraries in them because the monasteries had been destroyed with their libraries. The people who built their homes like Downton Abbey in Highclere were given their land by Henry.

  • Designs of the Period

    Portrait of Henry VIII. 1540. Oil on wood. Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Antica, Rome
    Hampton Court Palace.    Begun 1514.  Surrey, England.
    Hampton Court Palace, clock gate.
    Hampton Court Palace, Roman soldier and Roman emperor busts on entry gate.
    Hampton Court Palace, astronomical clock. Nicholas Oursian made this clock
    Hampton Court Palace, detail of brick
    Hampton Court Palace, Great Hall
    Hampton Court Palace, Chapel Royal.
    Hampton Court Palace, garden
    Hampton Court Palace, period costumes.
    Shakespeare’s House. Early 1500s. Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England
    Shakespeare’s House.
    Selly Manor. 1327, with Tudor extensions.  Bournville, Birmingham, England
    Selly Manor, interior drawing
    Chest. Oak.  15th-16th century.
    Chest. 1500-50.  Oak.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London
    Cupboard.        1500-1600.  Oak with traces of paint.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
    Aumbry (cupboard). Early 16th century.  Oak
    Armchair. c. 1520-25.  Oak
    Armchair. c. 1540.  Oak.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London
    Glastonbury chair.     1504.  Oak.  Bishop’s Palace, Wells, England.
    Stool. Oak.  Early 16th century.
    Bench ends.  1500-20.  Oak.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
    <em>Elizabeth I (“The Ermine Portrait”).</em> 1585.  Hatfield House, Hertfordshire, England.
    Elizabeth I (“The Ermine Portrait”). 1585.  Hatfield House, Hertfordshire, England.
    Hardwick Hall.        1590-96.  Derbyshire, England.
    Hardwick Hall, Long Gallery.
    Hardwick Hall, High Great Chamber.
    Hardwick Hall, embroidered canopy.
    Draw table. 2nd half of 16th century
    “Sea-dog” table. 1560-1600.  Walnut.  Withdrawing Chamber, Hardwick Hall
    Draw table. c. 1600.  Oak, carved and inlaid with sycamore, holly, and bog-oak.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
    The Great Bed of Ware. c. 1590.  Oak.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London
    The Great Bed of Ware, headboard.
    The Great Bed of Ware, detail of headboard
    Court cupboard.         Late 16th century.  Oak and walnut.  Victoria and Albert Museum.
    Paulus van Somer, James I.    Early 17th century.  Oil on canvas.  Prado Museum, Madrid. Anthony van Dyck, Charles I. 1636. Oil on canvas.  Windsor Castle, Windsor, England.
    Knole House.        Begun 1456, with later additions.  Kent, England. For Archbishop of Canterbury.
    Knole House, Brown Gallery
    Knole House, Venetian Ambassador's Bedroom
    Knole House, staircase. 1605-08
    Knole House, staircase
    Knole House, wooden screen in Great Hall.
    Knole House, wooden soldier.
    John Thorpe, Aston Hall, Long Gallery. 1618-35.  Aston, Birmingham, England.
    Robert Lyminge, Blickling Hall.  15th century, with additions in 1620.  Norfolk, England.
    Blickling Hall, great staircase
    Ham House. 1610.  Richmond-upon-Thames, Surrey, England
    Ham House, doorway
    Ham House, staircases. 1637-38
    Inigo Jones, Queen’s House. 1616-18 and 1629-35.  Greenwich, England.
    Queen’s House, Tulip Staircase
    Queen’s House, Great Hall
    Jones, Banqueting House.
    1619-22.  London
    Banqueting House, Great Hall.
    Wainscot chair. c. 1600.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London
    Chair. Early 17th century.
    Chair.        1649.  Beechwood, knotted woolen pile upholstery.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
    Armchair. c. 1620.  Gilded and painted wood, silk velvet upholstery.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London
    Settle.        17th century.  Oak.
    Stool.        1600-25.  Oak.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
    Chest. Early 17th century.  Oak
    “Nonesuch” chest.         Early 16th century.  Packwood House, Solihull, England.
    Tester bed. c. 1612.  Oak.  Montacute House, Somerset, England.
    Court cupboard. 1606.  Oak
    Knole sofa
    Embroidered cushion. 1630-40

    Designers of the English Baroque Period

  • Godfrey Kneller (1646-1723, German)
  • Jan van der Vaardt (1653-1727, Dutch)
  • John Vanbrugh (1664-1726, British)
  • Robert Smythson, (1535–1614, English)
  • Martha Edlin (1660-1725, British)
  • Nicholas Hawksmoor (c. 1661-1726, British)
  • Robert Smythson, (1535–1614, English)
  • Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723, British)
  • Sir Peter Lely (1618-80, Dutch)
  • William Samwell, (1628–1676, English)
  • William Wissing (1656-87, Dutch)

  • Backdrop

  • Oliver Cromwell assumed control of parliament after Charles I was beheaded in 1649
  • Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester in 1651 and Charles fled to France and his cousin Louis XIV.
  • Upon Cromwell’s death in 1658, Charles II returned to England and the throne. He was accompanied by his wife Catherine of Briganza. He brought an influx of artists primarily French Spanish and Portuguese who had been forced to leave by Henry VIII.
  • Charles II. 1684.  Oil on canvas.  Walker Museum, Liverpool.


    Designs of the Period


    St. Paul's Cathedral - Sir Christopher Wren

    1675-1710.  London.
    Exterior
    Exterior detail.
    Exterior detail
    Exterior detail
    Interior
    Interior of dome
    Interior of dome
    Interior of dome.

    Blenheim Palace - John Vanbrugh & Nicholas Hawksmoor

    . 1705-22.  Oxfordshire, England.
    Exterior
    Aerial view
    Great Hall
    Dining room
    Library.
    Library.

    Castle Howard - John Vanbrugh & Nicholas Hawksmoor

    1699-1712.  Malton, North Yorkshire, England
    Exterior
    Crimson Dining Room.
    Fireplace
    Long gallery
    Interior
    Bedroom
    Chapel
    Peacocks

    Temple of the Four Winds - John Vanbrugh - (Built on the grounds of Castle Howard)

    c. 1700, Malton, North Yorkshire, England
    Interior
    Interior of the dome

    Ham House - William Samwell & Robert Smythson

    1610, Richmond-upon-Thames
    Wall carvings by John Bullimore.
    North Drawing Room.
    North Drawing Room.
    Queen’s Closet
    Green Closet,

    Furnishings

    Charles II chair (other names:  Carolean chair, Restoration chair).
    Charles II chairs.
    Chair.        1660-1720.  Oak. 
    Chair.        c. 1675.  Japanned beech.  Ham House.
    Gate-leg table.       c.1660s.
    Table.        c. 1674.  Walnut, sycamore, and ebony marquetry on a carcass of oak and pine with legs in solid elm.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London
    Table top (from previous image).
    Table.        c. 1675.  Pine carcase, with scagliola top, stretcher and legs.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
    Table top (from previous image)
    Cabinet on stand. c. 1688.  Cabinet of pine and oak, with japanned decoration.  Stand of silvered pinewood, with yellow glaze of gum resin.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London
    Cabinet cabinet on stand, interior.   Japanned wood.
    Console, mirror, and candlestand.        c. 1680.  Silver over wood.  Knole House, Kent, England.
    Embroidered jewelry case.   1673.  Wood covered with silk, decorated with silk embroidery, metal purl, and glass beads.        Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
    (unknown), William III. c. 1690.  Oil on canvas.  National Portrait Gallery, London.
    Sir Peter Lely, Mary II.   1677.  Oil on canvas.  National Portrait Gallery, London.
    William and Mary chair. 1700-20.  Walnut with caned seat.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
    William and Mary chairs
    Armchair
    Chair. c. 1700.  Painted and gilded beech, with modern upholstery.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
    Daybed.        c. 1695.  Temple Newsam House, Yorkshire, England.
    Cabinet.        c. 1700.  Marquetry of walnut, burr walnut, sycamore, other woods and ivory, on a pine and oak carcase, with brass fittings.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
    Interior of cabinet (from previous image.)
    Chest of drawers.
    Chest of drawers.        c. 1700.  Oysterwood.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
    Bed.        c. 1698.  Oak with silk damask.  Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
    Princess (later Queen) Anne.       1683.  Oil on canvas.  Scottish National Portrait Gallery.
    Queen Anne chair
    Card table. 1710-25.  Walnut, carved and veneered on oak.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

    Designers of the English Georgian Period

  • Allan Ramsay (1713-84, Scottish)
  • Charles Jervas (1675-1739, British)
  • George Willison (1741-97, British)
  • Godfrey Kneller (1646-1723, German)
  • John Linnell (1729-96, British)
  • Richard Boyle (Lord Burlington) (1694-1753, British)
  • Robert Adam (1728-92, Scottish)
  • Thomas Chippendale (1718-1779, British)
  • William Aikman (1682-1731, British)
  • William Kent (1674-1748, British)
  • William Linnell (1703-63, British)

  • Georgian runs from 1714 when Anne dies thru 1800+. We generally consider George I & II & III reigns to be the Georgian era.
  • George IV is the Regency Era.
  • Parliament wanted to assure that no more Catholics could be on the throne. So, the parliament decided that George from Germany was Anne’s closest living protestant relative.
  • Early Georgian is late Baroque---Middle Georgian is Rococo---Late Georgian is Neo-classical looking
  • Inigo Jones was designing and Palladio never falls out of favor
  • There was a peace with France from 1713-1744 so French fashion continued throughout the continent. Many French Huguenots were working in England

  • Godfrey Kneller, George I. c. 1714.  Palace of Westminster, London.
    Charles Jervas, George II. c. 1727.  Oil on Canvas.  National Portrait Gallery, London
    Allan Ramsay George III. 1761-62.  oil on canvas.  National Portrait Gallery, London

    Designs of the Period


    Chiswick House - Chiswick, England - 1725-29

    Lord Richard Burlington, architect -- William Kent, interiors

    staircase
    statuary
    interior
    interior of dome
    detail of moulding
    gallery room.
    gallery room
    red room
    red room detail
    blue room
    blue room detail
    chair
    pavilion
    gardens
    bridge

    William Kent, Wilton House, interior. Wiltshire, England
    William Kent, Rousham House interior. 1740s.  Oxfordshire, England

    Thomas Chippendale
    writing table        1760
    Chippendale
    library table 1753
    Chippendale chair
    tripod table mahogany  c. 1765
    Wedgwood vase. 1790-1800.  Jasperware.  Winterthur Museum, Delaware

    Robert Adam - architect/designer

    (attr) George Willison, Robert Adam. c. 1773.  Oil on canvas.  National Portrait Gallery, London
    Designs for clocks
    George III settee
    George III lady’s writing table. c. 1765.  Mahogany
    George III side tables. Ebonized and gilded wood
    George III mirror. Gilded wood

    Syon House - Middlesex, England - 1761-65

    Robert Adam - architect/designer

    Exterior
    Great Hall
    Anteroom
    Long Gallery
    Long Gallery

    Kedleston House - Derbyshire, England - 1760s

    Robert Adam - architect/designer

    Exterior
    Marble Hall
    Salon
    Salon, detail of cupola


    Designers of the American Pilgrim, Georgian, & Federal Periods

  • Charles Bulfinch (1763-1864, American)
  • George Hepplewhite (? – 1786, British)
  • John Coney (1655-1722)
  • Samuel McIntire (1757-1811, American)
  • Thomas Dennis (1638-1706)
  • Thomas Hart (1611-74, British/American)
  • Thomas Sheraton (1751-1806, British)
  • William Searle (1634-1667, British)

  • American Pilgrim

    Mrs. Elizabeth Freake and Baby Mary. c. 1671-74.  Oil on canvas. 
    John Freake. c. 1671-74.  Oil on canvas
    John Turner House (House of Seven Gables). 1668.  Salem, Massachusetts.
    Iron Works House. Saugus, Massachusetts.
    Iron Works House. Saugus, Massachusetts.
    Diamond pane leaded window. 
    Iron Works House, decorative pendant
    Iron Works House, “Great Room.”
    Iron Works House, first-floor parlor.
    Iron Works House, second-story room above entry hall (“porch chamber”).
    Iron Works House, second-story parlor chamber.
    Hart House, family/dining roomc. 1639.  Ipswich, Massachusetts.
    Hart House, beam detail.
    Hart House, furniture.
    Cupboard.  1600-1700.  Oak, pine, maple, cedar, walnut
    Clifford S. Bonney House, dining room.        Newbury, Massachusetts.
    Carver chair. c. 1640-80.
    Brewster chair. c. 1640-80.
    William Searle (1634-1667) or Thomas Dennis (1638-1706), Chest. 1660-1680.  Road oak, white oak
    Turkey-work couch. c. 1698.  Maple and oak
    John Coney (1655-1722), tankard. c. 1690.  Silver

    American Georgian

    Three different styles of furniture in the American Georgian Period 1700-1780.  Kinda corresponds to English Georgian--Early, Middle & Late.

  • William & Mary - 1700-1730
  • Queen Anne – 1730-1750
  • Chippendale – 1750-1780
  • The style was Palladian like with much fenestration.
  • Pattern books for architecture came over in the 1800’s. It was necessary to go to England to study architecture.
  • The broken pediment had a different meaning than in England. In the Americas, it serves as a rewminder to not let this new country lose its way, a reminder that the greek and roman empire were once great and they eventually did fall.
  • The very wealthy had brick houses. MacPhaedris was a wealthy sea captain and he built the house for him and his bride Sarah Wentworth.
  • MacPhaedris-Warner House. 1718-23.  Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
    MacPhaedris-Warner House,doorway
    Isaac Royall House. 1733-37.  Medford, Massachusetts
    Jeremiah Lee House. 1768.  Marblehead, Massachusetts.
    Jeremiah Lee House, doorway
    Jeremiah Lee House, staircase
    Jeremiah Lee House, Great Chamber
    Jeremiah Lee House, Great Room
    Blackwell Parlor. 1760.  Winterthur Museum, Delaware.
    Port Royal Parlor. 1760.  Winterthur Museum, Delaware.
    Wentworth-Gardner House, dining room.        1760.  Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
    Wentworth-Gardner House, detail of wallpaper in dining room.
    Kenmore, fireplace and wallpaper. 1770s.Fredericksburg, Virginia.
    Kenmore, detail of dining room and drawing room ceilings.
    Highboy. c. 1700-1725.
    Lowboy. c. 1700-1725.
    Chippendale-style pie-crust table
    Pie-crust table, detail.

    American Federal

    Gardner-Pingree House. 1810.  Salem, Massachusetts.
    Gardner-Pingree House, portico.
    Harrison Gray Otis House. 1796.  Boston.
    Harrison Gray Otis House, doorway
    Harrison Gray Otis House, interior
    Harrison Gray Otis House, parlor
    Nathaniel Russell House. 1809.  Charleston, South Carolina.
    Nathaniel Russell House.
    Nathaniel Russell House, doors
    Nathaniel Russell House, doors
    Nathaniel Russell House, staircase
    Nathaniel Russell House, Music Room
    Nathaniel Russell House, Drawing Room
    Nathaniel Russell House, Drawing Room, detail
    Nathaniel Russell House, breakfast room
    Nathaniel Russell House, Dining Room
    Federal-style interior. New York.
    Sheraton-style chairs, after Thomas Sheraton
    Hepplewhite-style chairs, after George Hepplewhite
    Sideboard.  1795-1805