Empire Style - 1800 to 1815

Designers of the Period

Adam Weisweiler (1744-1820, German/French)

Antoine-Denis Chaudet (1763-1810, French)

Bernard Molitor 1755-1833, French)

Camille Pernon (1753-1808, French)

Charles Percier (1764-1838, French)

Darrac François-Louis-Castelnaux (c.1775-1862, French)

Dubois and Redouté

François-Honoré-Georges Jacob-Desmalter

Frères Jacob

Grand-Frères Silk Manufactory

Henri-Victor Roguier (1758-1830, French)

Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825, French)

Jean-Baptiste Huet (1745-1811, French)

Jean-Baptiste-Claude  Odiot (1763-1850, French)

Louis Lafitte (1770-1828, French)

Louis-François Cassas (1756-1827, French)

Louis-Martin Berthault (1770-1823, French)

Manufacture de Jouy

Manufacture Dusserre

Manufacture Impériale de la Savonnerie

Martin-Eloy Lignereau (1752-1809, French)

Martin-Guillaume Biennais (1764-1843, French)

Philibert de l’Orme (c. 1510-70, French)

Pierre François Léonard Fontaine (1762-1853, French)

Pierre-Alexandre Vignon (1763-1828, French)

Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823, French)

Sèvres Porcelain Factory


Napoleon's 1776 military campaign launched his career.

In 1804 after a series of coups Napoleon comes to power.

As Emperor, he restored the relationship with the Rooman Catholic church and balanced the budget

The furniture trade was destroyed as a result of the revolution

Furniture of the Louis dynasties was put up for sale to repay the costs of the the revolution.  Because no one wanted to be connected with the Louis dynasties, Frenchmen did not buy but the British did and incredible collections now exist in the UK.  The Wallace Collection is one of those collections.

Guild system was abolished in the revolution and the period of Napoleons reigh 1804-1815 was a period of extraordinary development of the crafts industry.  Fully supported by Napoleon who refurbished the palaces and publc buildings.  The french furniture trade recovered. 

The Empire Style was an attempt to give a look of splendor and grandeur to his reign as well as one that is best served by the arts.



Signature Design Elements of the Period

Bouillotte Lamp

A lamp consisting of one or several candlesticks with a central standard equipped with a non-flammable adjustable shade. often made of tôle, a painted or lacquered metal, reflective white on the inside, dark on the outside, that could be lowered as the candles burned down.tin or brass shade. Bouillotte, the card game, gave rise to the lamp.

Curule seat

a chair noted for its uses in Ancient Rome and Europe through to the 20th century. Its uses in Rome as a symbol of political or military power carried over to be used in such a regard by Kings in Europe, Napoleon, and others.
  • Designed to be viewed from the front
  • Reflective of Napoleon's fetish for monumental ancient art
  • Klismos Chair

    A chair with curved backrest and tapering, outcurved legs. The klismos was a specifically Greek invention, without detectable earlier inspiration.

    The klismos design is seen here in the foot board of a Récamier.

    Additional Design Elements

    • Heavy pieces e.g., barrel-back chair
  • Combination of grec (Greek) and etrusc (Etruscan) much heavier and monumental.
  • Winged sphinxes, caryatids, griffins, swords, lyres, palmettes, roman torches laurel leaves
  • The letter B and Napoleonic bees - Napoleon’s initial and the Barberini Family's, an Italilan family he admired.
  • Swans, Josephine’s favorite bird.
  • Tented interiors, or campaign style.

  • Designs of the Period

    Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon I and Coronation of the Empress Josephine 

    Empress Josephine’s cameo diadem. Musée Masséna, Nice.

    Madame Récamier. 1800 (unfinished).  Oil on canvas.  Musée du Louvre, Paris.

    Pyxis (box) showing klismos (chair). c. 500 BC.  Attic red-figure vase, Greece.  Musée du Louvre, Paris.

    Arc de Triomphe du Carousel. 1806-08  Paris

    L'église Sainte-Marie-Madeleine 1807-28.  Paris.

    Debauve & Gallais, façade. 1800.  Paris.

    Le Passage des Panoramas. c. 1807.  Musée Carnavalet, Paris

    Design for the Scrolled End of a Bedstead: Plate 15 of Recueil de Décorations Intérieures 1812. Engraving.  Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

    Watercolor sketches Institut de France, Paris.

    Malmaison. Early 18th century. Rueil-Malmaison, France.

    Council Room, Malmaison Frères Jacob, furniture

    Council Room, detail, Malmaison.

    Dining Room, Malmaison. Louis Lafitte, mural paintings. Frères Jacob, furniture.

    Josephine's bedroom, Malmaison. François-Honoré-Georges Jacob-Desmalter, , bed. Beauvais carpet. 1812

    Watercolor sketch for Josephine’s bedroom.

    Château de Fontainebleau. Begun 1528.  Fontainebleau, France.

    Napoleon's Throne, Château de Fontainebleau. Early 1800s.

    Napoleon's Abdication Room, Château de Fontainebleau. Early 1800s.

    Napoleon’s Bedroom, Versailles. Jacob-Desmalter, furniture. Darrac François-Louis-Castelnaux, upholsterer Camille Pernon, weaver of moiré upholstery fabric 1809-10

    Silver Salon in the Elysée Palace. Jacob-Desmalter, furniture. Early 1800s

    King of Rome’s (Napoleon II) bedroom, Château de Compiègne. Pierre-Benoît Marcion, furniture. Dubois and Redouté, wall panels. 1808

    Double Apartment of Princes, bedroom, Château de Compiègne. Jacob-Desmalter, furniture, gilded mahogany 1808

    Fauteuil and bergère chairs; Mahogany with gilt bronze mounts; silk and wool Beauvais tapestry upholstery c. 1810 The Getty Museum, Los Angeles.

    Settee; Mahogany with gilt bronze mounts; silk and wool Beauvais tapestry upholstery c. 1810 The Getty Museum, Los Angeles.

    Mahogany Daybed, Galerie Bernard Steinitz, Paris.

    Mahogany lit bateau with ebony inlay and gilt bronze mounts Musée du Louvre, Paris Early 1800s.

    Empress Josephine’s jewel cabinet. Designed by Percier and Fontaine, Pierre-Paul Prud’hon Gilt-bronze plaques by Pierre-Philippe Thomire From a model by Antoine-Denis Chaudet 1809  Oak, yew and purple-wood veneering, mother-of-pearl, gilt bronze Musée du Louvre, Paris

    Cradle for the King of Rome 1811. Gilded silver, gold, mother-of-pearl, copper plates covered with velvet, silk and tulle with gold and silver embroidery Musée du Louvre, Paris.

    Console (pier table)Yew wood.  Château de Fontainebleau.

    Basin with stand. 1809-10 Malachite and gilded bronze Fondazione Magnani, Parma, Italy.

    Mantel clock c. 1810.  Gilt bronze and red marble.  Private collection.

    Tea Service of Napoleon (partial) 1809-10.  Gilded silver.  Musée du Louvre, Paris.

    plate from a service Égyptien. 1811.  The Wellington Museum, London.

    Desert plate from the Service des Quartiers Généraux. 1808-09.  Souvenir Napoléonien, Paris

    Tea/chocolate cup. Early 19th century

    Wool Carpet from the Throne Room in the Tuileries Palace (replica) 1807-09 Musée National du Chateau de Malmaison.

    Damask 1809.  Lyons Silk c. 1810-11 Lyons

    Painted paper border Early 19th century  Museum of Decorative Arts, Paris N Initial Wall hanging. 1808-09.  Museum of Decorative Arts, Paris

    Les Monuments d'Égypte.” Designed by Jean-Baptiste Huet from a drawing by Louis-François Cassas c. 1808  Toile cotton Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

    English Regency - 1795 to 1837

    Designers of the Period

    Benjamin Dean Wyatt (1755-1852, English)

    Charles Heathcoate Tatham (1772-1842, British)

    Frederick Crace (1779-1859, British)

    George Bullock (1782-1818, British)

    Henry Bone (1755-1834, British)

    Henry Thomas Hope (1769-1831, British)

    Sir John Nash (1752-1825, British)

    Sir John Soane (1753-1837, British)

    Sir Thomas Lawrence (1769-1830, British)

    Sir William Beechey (1753-1839, British)


    Signature Design Elements of the Period

    Regency Chandelier

    Regency Chair with Sabre Legs

    George III Table

    Elongated Roman Arches

    Symmetry & Good Proportions

    Balconies of fine ironwork

    Corbels and Rondeles

    Balustrades

    Triangular pediment

    Fenestration (window Placement) - symmetrical

    Keystones

    Aquas, mauves, leafy greens, rose pinks, saffron yellow

    Klismos curl

    Sabre chair legs

    Striped wallpapers

    Medallions in carpet design

    Convex mirror

    Painted Furniture

    Gilded wood

    Barrelback chairs

    Japaning-applying lacquer to wood

    Chinoiserie

    Faux painting


    Designs of the Period

    Sir Thomas Lawrence George IV. 1816.  Oil on canvas.  Vatican Museums, Vatican City.

    Lawrence, Sir John Soane. Early 19th century.  Oil on canvas.  Sir John Soane’s Museum, London.

    Lawrence, Sir John Nash. Early 19th century.  Oil on canvas.  Jesus College, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England.

    Henry Bone (1755-1834, British) after Sir William Beechey (1753-1839, British), Portrait of Thomas Hope in Turkish Costume. 1805.  Enamel on copper.

    Sir John Soane (1753-1837, British), Sir John Soane’s Museum. c. 1792-1815.  London.

    Soane Museum, interior.

    Soane Museum detail.

    Soane Museum, breakfast room.

    Soane Museum, breakfast room detail.

    Soane Museum, library.

    Soane Museum, library.

    The sarcophagus of Seti I at Sir John Soane’s Museum (from Illustrated London News). 1864. 

    Sir John Nash (1752-1825, British), Cumberland Park, Regent’s Terrace. 1827.  London.

    Cumberland Park, Regent’s Terrace, detail.

    Nash, Marble Arch. 1828.  London.

    Robert Hughes (English), A Regency Interior. 1819. 

    Carlton House, Crimson Drawing Room (from “The History of the Royal Residences” by William Henry Pine.) 1819.  Colored plate.

    Carlton House, Gothic Dining Room (from “The History of the Royal Residences” by William Henry Pine), designed by John Nash. 1819.  Colored plate.

    Carlton House, Blue Velvet Room (from “The History of the Royal Residences” by William        Henry Pine). 1819.  Colored plate.

    Carlton House, Golden Drawing Room (from “The History of the Royal Residences” by William        Henry Pine). 1819.  Colored plate.

    Messrs. Pellatt and Green, Glass-makers” from Ackermann’s Repository of Art 1809.  Colored plate.

    Regency interior. Geffrye Museum, London.

    Regency chairs. c. 1810. 

    Regency armchair. c. 1805.  Ebonized and gilded wood

    Regency bergère. c. 1800.  Ebonized and gilded wood.

    Benjamin Dean Wyatt (1755-1852, English), chair. c. 1823.  Aburra wood with carved and gilt decoration.  Northumberland House, England. 

    Regency sofa. c. 1805.  Japanned and gilded wood.

    Henry Thomas Hope (1769-1831, British), stool. c. 1810.  Gilt and bronzed stool.

    “A Gothic Sofa” from Ackermann’s Repository of Art. 1811-1828.  Colored plate. 

    Charles Heathcoate Tatham (1772-1842, British), “Roman” stool. 1800.  Carved beech, painted to imitate marble.  Victoria and Albert Museum.

    Hope, pier table. c. 1800.  Huntington Library, San Marino, California.

    “The Egyptian Room” installation. Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

    Hope, “Egyptian” chairs. c. 1802.  Painted with bronzed and gilded ornament.  Faringdon Collection, Buscot Park, Oxfordshire.

    Hope, “Egyptian” sofa. c. 1802.  Faringdon Collection, Buscot Park, Oxfordshire.

    Hope, table. c. 1800.  Minneapolis Institute of Arts.

    George Bullock (1782-1818, British), sofa. c. 1810.

    Bullock, cabinet. c. 1815.  Maple and ebony.

    Drum table. c. 1815.  Rosewood, kingwood, and brass.

    Bullock, table. 1820.  Mahogany with burr yew and ebony inlay.

    Box. c. 1825.  Rosewood with inlaid brass.

    Robert Trent (British), plate. 1811-26.  Transfer-printed earthenware.

    Fabric. c. 1820.  Cotton.  Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

    Nash (1752-1825, British), Royal Pavilion at Brighton. 1815-21.  Brighton-and-Hove, England.

    Nash, “Views of the Royal Pavilion.” 1826.  Watercolor.

    Nash, “Views of the Royal Pavilion, The Great Banqueting Room.” (Design executed by Robert Jones.)

    Chandelier in Banqueting Room.

    Detail of chandelier in Banqueting Room.

    Frederick Crace (1779-1859, British), Royal Pavilion, “Chinese Pagoda” doorway.

    Dolphin Suite, Royal Pavilion, Music Room.

    Nash, “Views of the Royal Pavilion, Gallery.”

    American Classic Revival - 1795 to 1837

    Designers of the Period

    Antoine-Gabriel Quervelle (1789-1856, French/American)

    Asher Brown Durand (1796-1886, American)

    Charles-Honoré Lannuier (1779-1819, French/American)

    Duncan Phyfe (1768-1854, Scottish/American)

    Frederick Edwin Church (1826-1900, American)

    Horatio Greenough (1805-52, American)

    Thomas Cole (1801-48, British/American)

    Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826, American)

    Signature Design Elements of the Period

    --Tall Walls, Windows. and Doors

    --Carpets have floral motif and medallions.

    --Color Palette - still use some wedge wood blues and pale yellows of the former Georgian and Federal periods but the tones are now richer and more saturated much like the French Empire.

    --Crosshatch in chair backs

    --Curule in chairlegs

    -Window Swags are abbreviated version of English Regency

    --Panorama wallpaper

    --Convex mirrors inspired by ships portholes with eagle


    Designs of the Period

    Horatio Greenough (1805-52, American), George Washington. 1840.  Marble.  National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC.

    .  Thomas Cole (1801-48, British/American), The Oxbow (View from Mount Holyoke—       The Connecticut River Near Northampton after a Thunderstorm). 1836.  Oil on canvas.  Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

    Asher Brown Durand (1796-1886, American), Progress (The Advance of Civilization). 1853.  Oil on canvas.  The Warner Collection of Gulf States Paper Company, Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

    Frederick Edwin Church (1826-1900, American), Falls of Niagara. 1857.  Oil on canvas.  Corcoran Gallery, Washington DC.

    Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826, American), Monticello. 1769 – 1782 and 1793-1809.  Charlottesville, Virginia.

    Monticello, parlor.

    Monticello, parlor.

    Jefferson, University of Virginia. 1822-26, Charlottesville, Virginia.

    Jefferson, University of Virginia, pediment detail.

    Duncan Phyfe (1768-1854, Scottish/American), chair. c. 1815.

    Phyfe, card table. c. 1805.  Mahogany.  Merchant’s House Museum, New York.

    Phyfe, sofa. c. 1810.  Mahogany.  Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco.

    (attributed to) Phyfe, sofa. c. 1810-20.  Mahogany, tulip poplar, cane, gilded brass,  Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

    Phyfe,  interior. Early 19th century.  Winterthur Museum, Winterthur, Delaware.

    Charles-Honoré Lannuier (1779-1819, French/American),  pier table. c. 1815.  Mahogany (?), ebony, gilt bronze mounts.

    Pier table, detail.

    Lannuier, sleigh bed. 1817-19.  Mahogany, burl elm, and rosewood veneers, gilded brass.  Albany Institute of History and Art, Albany, New York.

    Lannuier, cellarette. Early 19th century.

    Lannuier, sofa. Early 19th century.  White House, Red Room, Washington DC.

    Lannuier,  White House, Red Room, furniture suite.  Early 19th century.  Washington DC.

    Phyfe and Lannuier, Richmond Room, furniture. 1810-20.  Richmond, Virginia.  (Reproduced in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.)

    John and Hugh Finlay, side chair. 1815-30.  Maple, yellow and red paint with stenciled and freehand gilt decoration. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

    Antoine-Gabriel Quervelle (1789-1856, French/American), secretary desk. c. 1830.  Mahogany.  Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute, Utica, New York.

    Biedermeier Period - 1815 to 1848

    Designers of the Period

    Alexander Jackson Davis (1803-92, American)

    Augustus Welby Northmore (A.W.N.) Pugin (1812-52, British)

    Cass Gilbert (1859-1934, American)

    Friedrich Wilhelm Doppelmayr (1776-1846, German)

    Gustave Courbet (1819-77, French)

    Gustave Herter (1830-1898,German/American)

    J.M.W. (Joseph Mallard William) Turner (1775-1851, British)

    John Rogers Herbert (1810-90, British)

    Leopold Zielcke (1791-1861, German)

    Ludwig Wilhelm Wittich (1773-1832, German)

    Richard Mitchell Upjohn (1828-1903, British/American)

    Richard Upjohn (1802-78, British/American)

    Sir Charles Barry (1795-1860, British)


    Designs of the Period

    Friedrich Wilhelm Doppelmayr (1776-1846, German), Family During the Biedermeier Period. c. 1830.  Watercolor.  Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg.

    Leopold Zielcke (1791-1861, German), Zimmerbild (“room painting”) c. 1825.  Royal collection, Berlin.

    Schloss Tegel, Blue Drawing Room. Early 19th century.  Berlin.

    Suite of furniture. c. 1815-30.  Birch.

    Suite of furniture. c. 1815-30.

    Table. c. 1815-30.  Walnut.

    Chair. c.  1815-30.  Walnut.

    Chair. c. 1815-30.  Walnut.

    Danhauser Furniture Factory, studies for draped seating furniture. c. 1815-30.  Pen, ink, and watercolor drawings. Österreichisches Museum für Angewandte Kunst, Vienna.

    Sofa. c. 1815-30.

    Secretary. c. 1815-30.

    Secretary. c. 1815-30.  Walnut with inlaid ebony.

    Secretary c. 1815-30.

    Secretary. c. 1810-15.  Mahogany and maple veneer, ebonized pearwood, mother of pearl, paint and gilding. Milwaukee Museum of Art, Milwaukee.

    Biedermeier wallpapers.

    Biedermeier wallpapers.

    Gothic Revival - 1830 to 1860

    amiens 1

    Designers of the Period

    Alexander Jackson Davis (1803-92, American)

    Augustus Welby Northmore (A.W.N.) Pugin (1812-52, British)

    Cass Gilbert (1859-1934, American)

    Gustave Courbet (1819-77)

    J.M.W. (Joseph Mallard William) Turner (1775-1851, British)

    John Rogers Herbert (1810-90, British)

    Richard Mitchell Upjohn (1828-1903, British/American)

    Richard Upjohn (1802-78, British/American)

    Sir Charles Barry (1795-1860, British)

    Sir George Gilbert Scott (1811-78, British)


    Designs of the Period

    Gustave Courbet (1819-77), The Stone Breakers. 1849 (destroyed 1945).  Formerly in Gemäldegalerie, Dresden.

    Photo of factory children. Late 19th century.

    Amiens Cathedral. Begun 1220.  Amiens, France.

    Detail, Gothic arch (pointed arch with trefoil)

    John Rogers Herbert (1810-90, British), A.W.N. Pugin. 1845.  Palace of Westminster, London.

    Sir Charles Barry (1795-1860, British) and Augustus Welby Northmore (A.W.N.) Pugin (1812-52, British), Houses of Parliament. 1840-65.  London.

    Houses of Parliament, Victoria Tower.

    Houses of Parliament, Members Lobby.

    Pugin, St. Giles Church. 1841-46.  Cheadle, Staffordshire, England.

    St. Giles Church, interior.

    St. Giles Church, interior

    St. Giles Church, main doors.

    Pugin, Eastnor Castle, drawing room. 1849.  Ledbury, Herefordshire.

    Pugin, “Gothic Furniture in the Style of the 15th Century”. 1835.  Published by Ackerman & Co.

    Pugin, tiles.

    Sir George Gilbert Scott , Albert Memorial. 1876.  London.

    J.M.W. (Joseph Mallard William) Turner , The Chancel and Crossing of Tintern Abbey, Looking Towards the East Window. 1794.Pencil and watercolor on paper.  Tate Museum, London.

    Alexander Jackson Davis ), Lyndhurst.  1838 and 1865.  Tarrytown, New York.

    Lyndhurst tower.

    Lyndhurst, art gallery.

    Lyndhurst, entry hall.

    Lyndhurst, office.

    Lyndhurst, detail of office ceiling.

    Lyndhurst, dining room.

    Lyndhurst, bedroom.

    Davis, Wildmont Lodge.  1878.  Orange, New Jersey.

    Richard Upjohn and Richard Mitchell Upjohn, Green-Wood Cemetery, entrance and gatehouse. 1861.  New York.

    Strickland Kneass, Chestnut Street Bridge.  1861-66.  Philadelphia.  (Demolished 1958.)

    Richard Upjohn, Trinity Church. 1839-46.  New York.

    Trinity Church.

    Trinity Church, interior.

    Cass Gilbert , Woolworth Building. 1911-13.  New York.

    Woolworth Building, detail.

    Woolworth Building, portal detail.

    Woolworth Building, interior.

    Frank Woolworth and Cass Gilbert gargoyle figures.

    George Bourne, Wedding Cake House. 1825.  Kennebunk, Maine.

    Alexander Roux, hall chair.  1850.  New York.

    Side chair.  1860.  New York.

    (Attributed to) Gustave Herter, armchair. c. 1855.  Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

    Second Empire - 1852 to 1870

    Designers of the Period

    Adolfe Yvon (1817-93, French)

    Charles Giraud (1819-92, French)

    Fortuné de Fournier (1798-1864, French)

    François-Xavier Winterhalter (1805-1873, German)

    Gabriel Viardot (1830-1906, French)

    Guillaume Denière (1815-1903, French)

    Gustave Caillebotte (1849-94, French)

    Hector-Martin Lefuel (1810-1881)

    Henri Picard (1840-90, French)

    Jean-François Denière (1774-1866, French)

    Jean-Louis-Charles Garnier, (1825-98, French)

    Ludovico Visconti (1791-1853)

    Mathieu Béfort (1813-1880, French)


    Designs of the Period

    Gustave Caillebotte , Street in Paris, A Rainy Day. 1877.  Oil on canvas. The Art Institute of Chicago.

    Adolfe Yvon , Napoleon III Hands Over the Decree allowing the Annexation of the Suburban Communes of Paris to Baron Georges Haussmann. 1859.  Oil on canvas.  Musée Carnavalet, Paris.

    François-Xavier Winterhalter, Emperor Napoleon III. 1855.  Musée de Versailles. Winterhalter, Empress Eugénie. 1855.  Musée de Versailles.

    Ludovico Visconti and Hector-Martin Lefuel, extension to Musée du Louvre. 1852-57.  Paris.

    Musée du Louvre, detail (Pavilion Turgot).

    Musée du Louvre, detail (Pavilion Richelieu).

    Jean-Louis-Charles Garnier, Paris Opera (Palais Garnier). 1861-74.  Paris.

    Paris Opera, dome.

    Paris Opera, staircase.

    Paris Opera, detail of staircase

    Paris Opera, detail of staircase

    Charles Giraud, Parlor of Princess Mathilde. 1859.  Musée National du Chateau de Compiègne, France.

    Fortuné de Fournier, Chateau de Saint-Cloud, Grand Salon. 1860.  Musée National du Chateau de Compiègne, France.

    Victor Quétin, plate from Le Magasin de Meubles. c. 1860.  Hand-colored lithograph.  Bibliothèque des Arts Décoratifs, Paris.

    Confidente. c. 1860.

    Confidente. c. 1860-70.

    Boudeuse. c. 1860-70.

    <h6><em>Canapé en confidente. </em> c. 1850.  Giltwood.</h6>
    Canapé en confidente. c. 1850.  Giltwood.

    Side chairs. c. 1860-70.

    Guéridon. c. 1860-70.

    Detail of guéridon.

    Victor Quétin, plate from Le Magasin de Meubles. c. 1860.  Hand-colored lithograph.

    Mathieu Béfort, side cabinet. c. 1870.  Amaranth, gilt-bronze mounts, rouge de Mainemarble, mahogany veneered interior.

    Béfort, console tables. c. 1860-70.  Tulipwood, gilt-bronze mounts.

    Side cabinet. c. 1870.  Gilt bronze, ebony, Boulle marquetry, marble, mahogany veneered interior.
     

    Marquetry. 1865-70.  Palisander and other woods. “Boulle”-style detail of table. 1855.  Musée National du Chateau de Compiègne, France.

    Victor Quétin, plate from Le Magasin de Meubles. c. 1860.  Hand-colored lithograph.

    Gabriel Viardot, armoire. c. 1880s.

    Viardot, “opium bed.” 1885.

    Viardot, suite of furniture. c. 1880s.

    Chandelier. c. 1860.  Gilt bronze.

    Jean-François Denière and Guillaume Denière , clock garniture.  (After a model by Albert-Ernest Carrier-Belleuse.) c. 1870.  Gilt and patinated bronze.

    Henri Picard, table garniture. c.  1865.  Gilt-bronze, glass.

    Beaux Arts/Renaissance Revival - 1880 - 1920

    Designers of the Period

    Albert Raymond Walker (1881-1958, American)

    Charles Follen McKim (1847-1933, American)

    Elmer Grey (1872-1963, American)

    Frank Dale Hudson (1868-1941, American)

    John Singer Sargent (1856-1925, American)

    Leonard Schultze and S. Fullerton Weaver, Americans)

    Myron Hunt (1868-1952, American)

    Percy Augustus Eisen (1885-1946, American)

    Richard Morris Hunt (1827-95, American)

    William A.O. Mansell (1866 – c. 1963, American)


    Designs of the Period

    John Singer Sargent (1856-1925, American), Mrs. Henry White. 1883.  Oil on canvas.  Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington DC.

    Richard Morris Hunt (1827-95, American), World’s Columbian Exhibition,       Administration Building. 1893.  Chicago.

    World’s Columbian Exhibition, Court of Honor.

    Charles Follen McKim (1847-1933, American), Rutherford Mead (1846-1928, American), and Stanford White (1853-1906, American), Boston Public Library. 1887-95.  Boston.

    Boston Public Library, exterior detail. Coffers inside the arches and Greek key or the meander, a roman soldier in the keystone.

    Boston Public Library, doorway. Roman arch and columns on each side of door are called pilasters

    Boston Public Library, Bates Room. Coffered barrel ceiling.  Remember Pantheon and coffered ceiling

    John Singer Sargent (1856-1925, American), Boston Public Library, Sargent Hall,       West Wall:   Judgment Lunette. 1890-1919.  Oil mural.

    Reed and Stern; (Whitney) Warren (1864-1943, American) and (Charles) Wetmore (1866- 1941, American), Grand Central Terminal. 1913.  New York.

    Jules-Felix Coutan (1848-1939, French), Mercury, Hercules, and Minerva       (Grand Central Station).

    Grand Central Terminal, interior.

    Grand Central Terminal, ceiling.

    Hunt, Marble House. 1892.  Newport, Rhode Island.

    Marble House, salon.

    Marble House, Gold Room.

    Marble House, dining room.

    McKim, Mead, and White, Vanderbilt Mansion. 1898.  Hyde Park, New York.

    Vanderbilt Mansion, interior.

    Vanderbilt Mansion, dining room.

    George Glaenzer, Vanderbilt Mansion, library.

    Ogden Codman (1863-1951, American), Vanderbilt Mansion, bedroom of Louise Vanderbilt.

    Glaenzer, Vanderbilt Mansion, bedroom of Frederick Vanderbilt.

    McKim, Mead, and White, Rosecliff. 1899-1902.  Newport, Rhode Island.

    Rosecliff, “Sweetheart’s Staircase.”

    Rosecliff ballroom.

    Myron Hunt (1868-1952, American) and Elmer Grey (1872-1963, American), Huntington Library. 1910.  San Marino, California.

    Huntington Library, columns.

    Albert Raymond Walker (1881-1958, American) and Percy Augustus Eisen (1885-1946, American), Regent Beverly Wilshire Hotel. 1928.  Beverly Hills.

    Regent Beverly Wilshire Hotel, entrance.

    Leonard Schultze and S. Fullerton Weaver, Biltmore Hotel (now Millennium Biltmore), 1923.  Los Angeles.

    Millennium Biltmore, entrance.

    Millennium Biltmore, lobby.

    Millennium Biltmore, detail of lobby ceiling.

    Millennium Biltmore, detail of staircase.

    Frank Dale Hudson (1868-1941, American) and William A.O. Mansell (1866 – c. 1963, American), Guasti Mansion (Peace Awareness Labyrinth and Gardens) 1910-14.  Los Angeles.

    Guasti Mansion, interior.

    Guasti Mansion, interior.

    Guasti Mansion, exterior.

    Architecture of Technology - 1850 to 1920

    Designers of the Period

    Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel (1832-1923,French)

    Charles Follen McKim (1847-1933,American)

    George Herbert Wyman (1860-1900,American)

    Giuseppe Mengoni (1829-77,Italian)

    Henri Labrouste (1801-75,French)

    John Roebling( 1806-69,German/American)

    Rutherford Mead (1846-1928,American)

    Sir George Gilbert Scott (1811-78,British)

    Sir Joseph Paxton (1803-64,British)

    Stanford White (1853-1906, American)

    Washington Roebling (1837-1926,American)


    Designs of the Period

    Henri Labrouste (1801-75, French), Bibliothèque Nationale, interior. 1858-68.  Paris.

    Labrouste, Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève, reading room. 1842-50.  Paris.

    Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève, detail of ceiling in reading room.

    Sir Joseph Paxton (1803-64, British), Crystal Palace.  1851.  London. (Re-erected in Sydenham in 1852, destroyed in 1936.)

    Crystal Palace.

    Crystal Palace, interior.

    “Medieval Court” at the Crystal Palace Exhibition. 1851.  Arranged by A.W.N. Pugin.

    Furniture examples at the Crystal Palace Exhibition.

    Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-59, British), Paddington Station.  1852.  London.

    Sir George Gilbert Scott (1811-78, British), St. Pancras Station. 1864-68.  London.

    St. Pancras Station, interior.

    Charles Follen McKim (1847-1933, American), Rutherford Mead (1846-1928, American), and Stanford White (1853-1906, American), Pennsylvania Station, concourse.  1902-11.  (Destroyed, 1963.)  New York.

    Giuseppe Mengoni (1829-77, Italian), Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele.  1865-67.  Milan.

    Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel (1832-1923, French), Garabit Viaduct. 1880. Cantal, France.

    Eiffel, Eiffel Tower.  1889.  Paris.

    Eiffel Tower, detail.

    John Roebling (1806-69, German/American) and Washington Roebling (1837-1926, American), Brooklyn Bridge.  1867-83.  New York.

    George Herbert Wyman (1860-1900, American), Bradbury Building. 1893.  Los Angeles.

    Bradbury Building, interior.

    Bradbury Building, interior

    Bradbury Building, elevator

    Victorian Era - 1837 to 1901

    Designers of the Period

    Alexander Roux (1813-86, American)

    Calvert Vaux (1824-95, English)

    Charles Locke Eastlake (1836–1906, British)

    Christian Herter (1839-1883,German)

    Frank Shea

    Fredric Church (1826-90, English)

    George Bourne(1801–1856, American)

    George Washington Polk

    Gustave Herter (1830-1898,German)

    Henry Austin(1804-1891, American)

    Henry Hudson Holly (1843-92, American)

    John Henry Belter (1804-63, German)

    John Jelliff (1813-1893, American)

    John LaFarge (1835-1910, American)

    Luigi Frullini (1839-1897, Italian)

    Peter R. Schmidt (1853-1906, American)

    Richard Morris Hunt (1827-95, American)


    Victorian/Edwardian Timeline


    Key Events

    The Victorian Era saw constant efforts to improve design throughout the period 1837 to 1901

    In England there was a movement to make lives better led by Pugin and later William Morris. 

    Victorian period contained four main types

      Carpenter/gothic or Italianate

      Stickley

      Queen Anne

      Second Empire w/ Mansard Roof

    Better healthcare for women and children

    In England social it was movement in reaction to the Industrialization.

    In America, it was an architectural movement.

    Old Horsestables were turned into apartments

    The Victorian styles were initially brought to the American West from the East Coast during Gold Rush 1848-1855.

    Single purpose closed in rooms.

      A sitting room for the ladies

      A mens smoking room

      Children’s &  maid’s room

      Gathering room for servants

    Designs that physically separated the sexes.

    Etiquette was very proscribed.

    In Heritage Sq around Halloween they have a mourning evening when somebody has passed away./

    1860-1890 - Half a million patents for things such as:

      Electric lamp

      Telephone

      Typewriter

      Linoleum

    One of the reasons architecture of the period is so eclectic is we didn’t have architects so we used pattern books.  Couples would build their “custom” homes by choosing different parts of their new home.

    Architecture didn’t come into full bloom until later the 1800’s.

    Water driven or steam driven tools were available for woodworking called gingerbread.  This made customizing homes possible in order to impress.


    Designs of the Period

    Victorian Row Houses. England.

    George Bourne, Wedding Cake House. 1825.  Kennebunk, Maine.

    Illustration from Pelton’s Cheap Dwellings. 1880.

    Illustration of ItalianateStick/Eastlake, and Queen Anne bay window styles

    Example of Italianate style.

    Example of Stick/Eastlake style.

    Example of Queen Anne style.

    Italianate-style house. 1878.  San Francisco.

      Thomas Martin, Italianate row houses. c. 1870.  San Francisco.

    Italianate-style house. 1878.  San Francisco.

    Schmidt and Shea, Stick/Eastlake-style house. 1888.  San Francisco.

    Stick/Eastlake-style house. 1886.  San Francisco.

    Samuel Newsom and Joseph Cather Newsom, Stick/Eastlake-style house. 1885.  San Francisco.

    Queen Anne-style house. 1899.  San Francisco.

    J.C. Matthews and Son, Queen Anne-style house. 1889.  San Francisco.

    William Armitage, Chateau Tivoli. 1890.  San Francisco.

    Chateau Tivoli, roofscape.

    Joseph Cather Newsom, Sessions Residence. 1888.  Echo Park, California.

    Mooser and Cuthbertson, Mansard-style house. 1872 (altered and expanded 1892).  San Francisco.

    “Psycho” House. Universal Studios, CA.

    Richard E. Shaw, Valley Knudsen Garden Residence. 1884.  Originally Lincoln Heights (Los Angeles), now Los Angeles (Heritage Square).

      Henry Austin, Morse-Libby House (also known as Victoria Mansion). 1858.  Portland, Maine.

      Morse-Libby House, detail of façade.

      Morse-Libby House, entrance hall.

      Morse-Libby House, doorway.

      Morse-Libby House, drawing room.

      Morse-Libby House, dining room.

      Henry Hudson Holly (1843-92, American), Glenmont. 1880.  West Orange, New Jersey.

    Glenmont, façade detail.

      Glenmont, library.

      Glenmont, detail of library ceiling.

      Glenmont, conservatory.

      (remodeled by) Richard Morris Hunt, Chateau-sur-Mer. 1852.  Newport, Rhode Island.

      Chateau-sur-Mar, staircase.

      Luigi Frullini, carving on library desk, Chateau-sur-Mer.

      Chateau-sur-Mer, bedroom.

      Chateau-sur-Mer, bathroom.

      Calvert Vaux, Olana. 1870-72.  Hudson, New York.

      Olana, detail of exterior.

      Olana, archway.

    Olana, interior.

      Olana, “Amber” window.

      Olana, fireplaces.

      Olana, details.

      “Olana” Waverly fabric.

    Frank Shea, Archbishop’s Mansion, parlor. 1904.  San Francisco.

    Shea, Archbishop’s Mansion, doorway.

    George Washington Polk, Rattle and Snap, bedroom suite. 1845.  Columbia, Tennessee.

      Rattle and Snap, parlor.

    John Henry Belter, sofa in parlor of Rattle and Snap. c. 1850-1855.  Laminated rosewood.

      Sofa. c. 1865.

      Renaissance Revival Parlor (from residence of Jedediah Wilcox, Meriden, Connecticut). 1870.  Metropolitan Museum of Art.

      Renaissance Revival Parlor.

      (attributed to) John Jeliff and Company, armchair and sofa. 1868-70.  Rosewood, ash, pine, and mother-of-pearl.  Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

      (attributed to) Mitchell, Vance and Company, gasolier. c. 1870.  Gilt brass and glass.  Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

      Reitz Home, parlor. 1871.  Evansville, Indiana.

      Alexander Roux (1813-86, French/American), Renaissance Revival-style cabinet. c. 1866.  Rosewood, tulipwood, cherry, poplar, pine, porcelain plaques, ormolu.

     Alexander Roux (1813-86, American), sideboard. c. 1853-57.  Black walnut and pine.  Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

     Eastlake-style chair.

    60. Stanwood Hall, Hamlin School, “Oriental” parlor. 1901.  San Francisco.

    Herter Brothers, cabinet. c. 1875-80.  Ebonized cherry with gilt and painted decoration and gilt pressed paper. Detroit Institute of Arts.

      Herter Brothers, cabinet. 1875.  Ebonized cherry with veneer inlays and metallic foil paper.

      Berkey and Gay (?), bed. c. 1870-80. 

    Haas-Lilienthal House, interior. 1886.  San Francisco.

    John Coop House, banister. 1889.  San Francisco.

    Spencer House, entry hall detail. 1895.  San Francisco.

      Victorian mourning brooch. c. 1870.  Gold, jet, pearls, glass, and hair. Victorian mourning brooch. c. 1848.  Gold, enamel, glass, and hair.

    Romanesque / Chicago School - 1850-1920

    Trinity Church, 1872-1876 Boston, MA

    trinity facade

    Maria Laach Abbey, 1093-1156 Glees, Germany


    Designers of the Period

    Daniel Hudson Burnham (1846-1912, American)

    Dankmar Adler (1844–1900, German-American)

    Henry Hobson Richardson (1838-1886, American)

    John Wellborn Root (1850-1891, American)

    Louis Henry Sullivan (1856-1924, American)

    Sir Hubert von Herkomer (1849-1914, German)

    Signature Design Elements

  • syrian arches
  • the eyelid dormer
  • karahafu (japanese gable)
  • wide hip roof w/ extended eaves
  • floral capitals
  • lozenges

  • Richardsonian-Romanesque

    Sir Hubert von Herkomer, Henry Hobson Richardson. c. 1880s  Oil on canvas.

    Photograph of Henry Hobson Richardson. c. 1880.

    Henry Hobson Richardson (1838-86, American), Trinity Church (with Hancock Tower).  1872-77. Boston.

    Trinity Church.

    Trinity Church, view of cloister.

      Crane Memorial Library.  1880-83.  Quincy, Massachusetts.

    Crane Memorial Library, gable detail.

    Crane Memorial Library, arch detail.

      Austin Hall, Harvard Law School. 1881-83.  Cambridge, Massachusetts.

    Austin Hall, Harvard Law School, entrance.

      Austin Hall, Harvard Law School, arch detail.

    Austin Hall, Harvard Law School, window detail.

      Converse Memorial Library. 1885.  Malden, Massachusetts.

    Converse Memorial Library, gable detail.

    Converse Memorial Library, capital detail.

    Converse Memorial Library, gargoyle.

      Albany City Hall. 1880-83.  Albany, New York.

      Albany City Hall, interior.

      Albany City Hall, detail.

    The Chicago School

    Photograph of Louis Sullivan.  c. 1890.

      Louis Henry Sullivan (1856-1924, American), Carson Pirie Scott Department Store. 1899-1904.  Chicago.

      Carson Pirie Scott Department Store, entrance detail.

      Carson Pirie Scott Department Store, entrance detail.

    Daniel Hudson Burnham and John Wellborn Root, Fisher Building.  1897.  Chicago.

    Fisher Building, construction.

      Fisher Building, exterior details.

      Fisher Building, exterior details.

      Fisher Building, exterior details.

    Burnham and Root, Monadnock Building.  1889-91.  Chicago.

    Burnham and Company, Reliance Building (now Hotel Burnham). 1894-95.  Chicago.

      Hotel Burnham, interior.

      Hotel Burnham, elevator lobby.

    Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan, Guaranty Building.  1896.  Buffalo, New York.

      Guaranty Building, detail.

      Guaranty Building, entrance detail.

      Guaranty Building, capital detail.

    Burnham and Company, Flatiron Building.  1902.  New York.

    Sullivan, National Farmers Bank. 1907-08, Owatonna, Minnesota.

      National Farmers Bank.

    National Farmers Bank, detail. Glazed terra cotta and tile.

    National Farmers Bank, stained glass.

    National Farmers Bank, interior detail.

    National Farmers Bank, electrolier.

    Arts and Crafts Period - 1880 - 1910

    Getting Ready for a Game, 1901 Carl Larsson

    Signature Design Elements of a Craftsman Home

    Low-pitched roof lines, gabled or hipped roof

    Deeply overhanging eaves

    Exposed rafters or decorative brackets under eaves

    Front porch beneath extension of main roof

    Tapered, square columns supporting roof

    4-over-1 or 6-over-1 double-hung windows

    Frank Lloyd Wright design motifs

    Hand-crafted stone or woodwork

    Mixed materials throughout structure

    Symmetrical

    Designers of the Period

    British Arts and Crafts

      Archibald Knox (1864-1933, British)

      Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo (1851-1942, British)

      Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828–1882, British)

      Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-82, British)

      Edmund Blair Leighton (1852-1922, British)

      Edward Burne-Jones (1833-98, British)

      Ford Madox Brown (1821-1893, British)

      George Frederick Watts (1817-1904, British)

      John Henry Dearle (1860-1932, British)

      John Pollard Seddon (1827-1906, British)

      Philip Speakman Webb (1831-1915, British)

      Sir Robert Stodart Lorimer (1864-1929, Scottish)

      William de Morgan (1839-1917, British)

      William Morris (1834-96, British)

    American Arts and Crafts

      Charles Sumner Greene (1868-1957, American)

      Dirk Van Erp (1860-1953, Dutch/American)

      Ernest Batchelder (1875-1957, American)

      Gustav Stickley (1858-1942, American)

      Handel Lamp Company

      Henry Mather Greene (1870-1954, American)

      John George Stickley (1871-1921, American)

      Julia Morgan (1872-1957, American)

      Leopold Stickley (1869-1957, American)

      Rookwood Pottery


    Designs of the Period

    George Frederick Watts, Portrait of William Morris. 1870.  Oil on canvas.  National Portrait Gallery, London.

      Philip Speakman Webb, The Red House (William Morris’s House). 1859.  Kent, England.

      The Red House, exterior

      The Red House, exterior detail.

      The Red House, interior.

    Edmund Blair Leighton, The Accolade. 1901.  Oil on canvas.

    Dante Gabriel Rossetti, The Day Dream. 1880.  Oil on canvas.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

      William Morris, “Strawberry Thief” fabric. 1883.

    Morris, “Corn Cockle” fabric. 1883.

    Morris, “Honeysuckle” fabric.

      Morris, design for “Acanthus” wallpaper. 1874.  Pencil and watercolor on paper. “Acanthus” wallpaper. 1875.  Color print from wood blocks.

    John Henry Dearle, “Artichoke” wallpaper. 1888-89.

    Morris. The Woodpecker Tapestry. 1885.

    Morris, Webb, and Dearle, The Forest Tapestry. 1887.

    William de Morgan, broadsheet of tiles.

    de Morgan, “Snake” tiles. 1890s.

    Morris, “Pink and Hawthorn” tiles. 1887.

      Morris, Edward Burne-Jones, and Dante Gabriel Rossetti, “The Arming of a Knight” and “Glorious Gwendolen’s Golden Hair” chairs. 1856-57.  Painted deal, leather, and nails.  Delaware Art Museum,Wilmington.

      John Pollard Seddon, Ford Madox Brown, Morris, and Rossetti, King René’s Honeymoon Cabinet. 1862.  Oak inlaid with various woods, painted metalwork and panels.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

      Panels from King René’s Honeymoon Cabinet.

    Webb, Sussex chairs and bench. c. 1880.

      Webb, sideboard. Late 19th century.  Ebonized and painted wood, with inset panels of embossed and stained leather.

    Morris, adjustable chair. 1886.

    Kelmscott Manor. 1560 and 1665.  Kelmscott, England.

    Kelmscott Manor, bedroom.

    Kelmscott Manor, Sunflower settle.

    Webb and Morris, Green Dining Room. 1866-67.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

      Sir Robert Stodart Lorimer, settle. Late 19th century.  Stained beech.

    Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo, dining chair.  c. 1883.  Mahogany.  Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

      Archibald Knox, jewel box. c. 1900.  Silver, mother-of-pearl, turquoise, and enamel.  Museum of Modern Art, New York.

    Photograph of Charles and Henry Greene. Early 1900s.  Greene & Greene Library, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

    Charles Sumner Greene and Henry Mather Greene, Gamble House. 1908.  Pasadena.

    Gamble House, front door.

    Gamble House, front door.

    Gamble House, entry hall.

    Gamble House, staircase.

      Gamble House, staircase.

    Gamble House, living room.

    Gamble House, detail of frieze in living room.

    Gamble House, scarf joint.

    Gamble House, dining room.

    Gamble House, bedroom.

    Gamble House, headboard.

    Gamble House, headboard detail.

    Gamble House, lamp.

    Gamble House, back yard.

    Gustav Stickley, furniture group. c. 1900. Dirk Van Erp, lamp. 1910.  Hammered and patinated copper with mica.

      Leopold Stickley, and John George Stickley , armchair. c. 1904.

    Van Erp, lamp. c. 1910. 

    Stickley, copper tray. Early 20th century.

    51. Rookwood Pottery, vases. Early 20th century.

    Rhead Pottery, vase. 1913-17. 

      Arequipa Pottery, vase. 1912.

    Handel Lamp Company, reverse-painted lamp. Early 20th century.

    Ernest Batchelder, tiles. Early 20th Century. 

    Julia Morgan, St. John’s Presbyterian Church and Sunday School. 1908-10.  Berkeley, California.

    Morgan, St. John’s Presbyterian Church and Sunday School, interior.

    Morgan, Merrill Hall, Asilomar. 1928.  Pacific Grove, California.

    Morgan, Merrill Hall, interior.

    Stickley, The Craftsman Magazine.  1913.

    Advertisement for Craftsman Homes.

    Illustration for living room from The Craftsman.  1907.

    Illustration for staircase from The Craftsman.  1906.

    Bungalow-style home. West Hollywood.

    Bungalow-style home, interior.

    Bungalow-style home, interior.

    Art Nouveau Period - 1890 - 1910

    Hôtel Tassel, staircase., 1893-95 Victor Horta

    Signature Design Elements of the Period

    Women as Femme Fatale

    The Whiplash Curve

    Vertical lines and height

    Stylized flowers, leaves, roots, buds and seedpods

    The female form, in a pre-Raphaelite pose with long, flowing hair

    Exotic woods, marquetry, iridescent glass, silver and semi-precious stones

    Metamorphosis

    Nightmarish Animals

    Designers of the Period

    Alphonse Mucha (1860-1939, Czechoslovakian)

    Antoni Plàcid Guillem Gaudí I Cornet, (1852-1926, Spanish).

    Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo (1851-1942, British)

    Aubrey Beardsley (1872-98, British)

    August EndelI (1871-1925, German)

    Bernhard Pankok (1872-1943, German)

    Carlo Bugatti (1856-1940, Italian)

    Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928, Scottish)

    Edvard Munch (1863-1944, Norwegian)

    Emile Andre (1871-1933)

    Emile Gallé (1846-1904, French)

    Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919, German)

    Eugene Gaillard (1862-1933, French)

    Eugene Vallin (1856--1922)

    Frederick Glasier (1866-1950, American)

    Georges de Feure (1868-1943, French)

    Hector Guimard (1867-1942, French)

    Henri Bellery-Desfonlaines (1867-1909, French)

    Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901, French)

    Henri Sauvage (1873-1932, French)

    Hermann Obrist (1862-1927, German)

    Jacques Gruber (1870-1936)

    Jan Toorop (1858-1928, Dutch)

    Josef Hoffman (1870-1956, Austrian)

    Joseph Maria Olbrich (1867-1908, Austrian)

    Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849, Japanese)

    Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933, American)

    Louis Henri Sullivan (1856-1924, American)

    Louis Majorelle (1859-1926, French)

    Maison Bagues

    Peter Behrens (1868-1940, German)

    Philippe Wolfers (1858-1929, Belgian)

    René Lalique (1860-1945, French)

    Richard Riemerschmid (1868-1957, German)

    Rupert Carabin (1862-1932, French)

    Siegfried Bing (1838-1905, French)

    Théophile Alexandre Steinlen (1859-1923, Swiss/French)

    Victor Horta (1861-1947, Belgian)

    William Morris (1834-96, British)


    Designs of the Period

    Guidebook cover for the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle.

    Gustave Serrurier-Bovy, Pavilion Blue Restaurant for the      1900 Paris Exposition Universelle.  

      “Moving sidewalk” for the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle.

    Henri Sauvage, Loïe Fuller Pavilion for the 1900 Paris Exposition       Universelle.

    Frederick Glasier , Portrait of Loïe Fuller, 1902.  Photograph.

    René Lalique, storefront for the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle with detail       of bronze grille.

      William Morris, “Strawberry Thief” fabric. c. 1883.

      Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo, dining chair.  c. 1882.

      Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Jane Avril at the Jardin de Paris. 1893.  Colored lithograph.  Musée Toulouse-Lautrec, Albi.

      Ernst Haeckel, Discomedusae. 1904.

      Jan Toorop, Delftsche Slaolie.  1894.  Colored lithograph.  Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam.

      Alphonse Mucha, advertisement for Job cigarettes. 1896.  Colored lithograph.

      Mucha, advertisement for Moët & Chandon Dry Impérial.

      Aubrey Beardsley, The Climax (illustration for Oscar Wilde’s “Salomé”). 1893.  Line etching.

      Edvard Munch, The Vampire. 1893.  Oil on canvas.  National Gallery, Oslo.

    Franz Stuck, The Sin. 1893.  Neue Pinakothek, Munich.

    Katsushika Hokusai, The Great Wave Off Kanagawa (from 36 Views of Mount Fuji). 1820s.  Woodblock print.

    Georges de Feure, furniture for sitting room in L’Art Nouveau Bing. 1900.  Gilded wood.  Paris.

    Louis Majorelle, bed.  1900.  Walnut with inlaid decoration including thuya, amaranth, bois des îles, burl amboyna, mother-of-pearl, brass, and pewter.

    Majorelle, side chair. c. 1900.

    Emile Gallé , “Aube et Crépuscule” (Dawn and Dusk) bed. 1904.  Fruitwood, mother-of-pearl, carved opalescent glass.  Musée de l’Ecole de Nancy, France.

    “Aube et Crépescule” bed, detail.

    “Aube et Crépescule” bed, detail.

    Gallé, bookcase. 1900. 

    Gallé, cabinet. 1904. 

    Hector Guimard, cabinet. c. 1899.  Pear wood, ash wood, bronze, mirrored glass.  Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond.

    Eugène Gaillard, cabinet 1900.  Walnut.

    Jacques Gruber and Eugène Vallin, and Emile André, double doors 1901.  Musee d’Orsay, Paris.

    Eugene Vallin, Masson House1903-14, Nancy FR

    Rupert Carabin, table

    Carlo Bugatti, “Cobra” chair. 1902.  Wood, copper, and painted parchment.  Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh.

    Guimard, Porte Dauphine Métropolitain (subway entrance). 1900-1901.  Paris.

    Guimard, Monceau Metropolitain (subway entrance). 1899-1905.  Paris.

    Alexandre Bigot, ceramic doorway surround. 1901.  29 Avenue Rapp, Paris.

    Louis Henri Sullivan, Carson Pirie Scott Department Store, detail. 1899-1904.  Chicago.

    Photo of Antoni Plàcid Guillem Gaudí I Cornet

    Antoni Plàcid Guillem Gaudí I Cornet, (1852-1926, Spanish), Casa Batlló. 1904-06.  Barcelona.

    Casa Batlló, roofscape. Ceramic tiles.

    Casa Batlló, balconies. Wrought iron.

    Casa Batlló, windows. Montjuïc stone.

    Casa Batlló, rear façade.

    Casa Batlló, fireplace and door.

    Casa Batlló, interior staircase.

    Gaudí, Casa Milà (“La Pedrera”). 1906-10.  Barcelona.

    Casa Milà, exterior detail.

    Casa Milà, entrance gate.

    Casa Milà, interior.

    Casa Milà, chimneys.

    Casa Milà, roof sculptures.

    Gaudí, Dragon gate, Park Güell. 1900-14.  Wrought iron.  Barcelona.

    Dragon gate, detail.

    Park Güell.

    Park Güell, tile detail.

    Dragon lizard, Park Güell.

    Gaudí, La Sagrada Familia. 1883- .  Barcelona.

    La Sagrada Familia, detail.

    La Sagrada Familia, towers.

    La Sagrada Familia, staircase.

    La Sagrada Familia, details.

    Gaudí, furniture. c. 1900.

    Victor Horta on Belgian bank note.

    Victor Horta, Hôtel Tassel, staircase. 1893-95.  Brussels.

    Hôtel Solvay, detail of balcony.  1894-98.  Brussels.          

    Hôtel Solvay, detail of door.

    Hôtel Solvay, stained glass window.

    Hôtel van Eetvelde, octagonal hall. 1895-97.  Brussels.

    Hôtel van Eetvelde, detail of decorative woodwork.

    Horta House and Studio, staircase. 1898-1901.  Brussels.

    Horta House and Studio, staircase.

      Horta House and Studio, staircase.

    Louis Comfort Tiffany, vase.  1897.  Iridescent (Favrile) glass, silver-plated metal, pearls, and precious stones.

    Tiffany, “Peacock” vase. c. 1900.  Favrile glass.

    Tiffany, “Jack-in-the-Pulpit” vase. c. 1900.  Favrile glass.

    Gallé, incense burner.  1900.  Cameo glass and silvered metal.

    Gallé, “Les Roses de France” vase. c. 1900.  Carved and applied glass.

    Gallé, The Seahorse vase.  1901.  Blown glass and applied glass.

      François-Raoul Larche, “Loïs Fuller” lamp. 1901.  Gilt bronze.

    René Lalique, corsage ornament.  c.1898.  Gold, enamel, chrysoprase, moonstone, and diamonds.  Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon.

    Philippe Wolfers, Medusa’s head pendant. 1898.  Gold, opal, and ivory.

      Wolfers, orchid hair ornament.  1902.  Gold, enamel, diamonds, and rubies.

    Mackintosh & The Glasgow School - 1890 - 1910

    Designers of the Period

    Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928, Scottish)

    Frances Macdonald (1873-1921, English/Scottish)

    James Herbert MacNair (1868-1955, Scottish)

    Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh (1865-1933, English/Scottish)


    Signature Design Elements of the Period

    Macintosh rose with long stems

    Squares in various sized sets - 3's - 4's - 6's - etc.


    Designs of the Period

    Photos of Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh.

    Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928, Scottish), The Tree of Personal Effort 1894.

    Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Cabbages in an Orchard. 1894.  Watercolor.

    Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh (1865-1933, English/Scottish), Summer.

    Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh, The White Rose and the Red Rose.  1902.

    Margaret Macdonald, Frances Macdonald (1873-1921, English/Scottish), and James Herbert MacNair (1868-1955, Scottish), Poster for the Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts.

    Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Glasgow School of Art. 1899 and 1907.  Glasgow.

    Glasgow School of Art, main entrance.

    Glasgow School of Art, detail of carving over main entrance.

    Glasgow School of Art, staircase entry.

    Glasgow School of Art, board room.

    Glasgow School of Art, library.

    Glasgow School of Art, light fixtures in library.

    Glasgow School of Art, studio door.

    Mackintosh, Willow Tea Rooms, street façade. 1903.  Glasgow.

    Willow Tea Rooms, signage.

    Willow Tea Rooms, Room de Luxe.

    Willow Tea Rooms, Room de Luxe.

    Room de Luxe doors.

    Mackintosh, "Willow" chair. 1904. 

    Mackintosh, Part Seen, Part Imagined.
           1896.  Watercolor.

    Mackintosh, Buchanan Street Tea Rooms. 1896.

    Mackintosh, Argyle Street Tea Rooms chair. 1898.

    Mackintosh, Hill House. 1904.  Helensburgh, Scotland.

    Hill House, entrance  hall.

    Hill House, detail of entrance hall.

    Hill House, fireplace in drawing room.

    28. Hill House, bedroom.

    Hill House, ladderback chair and wardrobes.

    Mackintosh, hallway of 6 Florentine Terrace (as recreated in the Hunterian Art Gallery of the University of Glasgow.) 1906.

    Bedroom of 6 Florentine Terrace.

    Chair and desk for 6 Florentine Terrace.

    Margaret Mackintosh, writing desk lock panels. 1900.  Beaten brass panels with silvered plating.

    Mackintosh, doorway, 78 Derngate. 1916.  Northampton, England.

    Hall lounge, 78 Derngate.

    Stairway screen, 78 Derngate.

    Guest bedroom, 78 Derngate.

    Mackintosh, settee. 1917.  Glasgow School of Art.

    Mackintosh, Anemones. 1916.  Colored pencil and watercolor.  Private collection.

    Mackintosh, Fritillaria. 1915.  Watercolor.

    Mackintosh,Rose and Teardrop. 1923.  Fabric design.

    Chair. c. 1900.  Wood with inlaid mother-of-pearl.